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Bio101 создатель Mind Map: Bio101

1. Chapter6

1.1. cells

1.1.1. what are the types? prokaryotic have double membrane system inside eukaryotic membranes compartmentalize fumctions mitochondria chloroplasts

1.1.2. what are the similarities? plasma membrane cytosol both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have the gel-like cytosol, a water-based solution that contains ions, small molecules, and macromolecules chromosomes ribosomes tiny complexes that make proteins based on instructions contained in genes

1.1.3. what are the differences? location of DNA nucleoid nucleus size of cells Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells. complexity eukaryotic are more structurally complex prokaryotic are more chemically complex

1.1.4. why is there an upper limit on size? cellular metabolism requires nutrients to pass in & out at a pace which can only be kept with a large surface area bacteria 1-5 micro meter in diameter eukaryotic 10-100 micro meter in diameter Rates of chemical exchange across the plasma membrane would be inadequate to maintain a cell with a very large cytoplasm. as a cell increases in size, its volume inreases faster than its surface area Area is proportional to a linear dimension squared, whereas volume is proportional to the linear dimension cubed. As a result, smaller objects have a higher ratio of surface area to volume.

1.2. membranes

1.2.1. participate in metabolism

1.2.2. structure? double layer of phospholipids Each type of membrane has a unique combination of lipids and proteins for its specific functions.

1.2.3. many enzymes are built into them enzymes embedded in the membranes of mitochondria function in cellular respiration

1.2.4. provide different local environments

1.2.5. allow incompatible processes to occur simultaneously

1.3. endomembrane system

1.3.1. function(s)? regulates protein traffic performs metabolic functions in the cell

1.3.2. components? Rough ER function(s)? component(s)? Smooth ER storage of calcium ions Golgi Apparatus function(s) components summary? Lysosomes function(s)? component(s)? summary? disorder(s)? Vacuoles summary? type(s)?

1.4. endosymbiont theory

1.4.1. evidence? dual membrane ribosomes & circular DNA semi autonomous growth and reproduction

1.4.2. example(s) mitochondria compartment(s)? component(s)? chloroplasts compartment(s)? component(s) family?

1.5. cytoskeleton

1.5.1. summary? network of fibers organizes structures and activities intracellular organelle transport

1.5.2. component(s)? microtubules made of? intramediate filaments microfilaments

1.5.3. function(s)?

1.6. extracellular components

1.6.1. coordinate cellular activities

2. Chapter 1


2.1.1. Organization

2.1.2. Information genes program protein production are transcribed into mRNAs gene expression

2.1.3. Energy & Matter transferred & transformed

2.1.4. Interactions emergent properties new ones result from interactions amongst components at the lower levels systems biology model dynamic behavior of biological systems by studying the interactions among the system's parts.

2.1.5. Evolution prokaryotic lack membrane enclosed organelles eukaryotic membrane enclosed organelles DNA in nucleus domains bacteria archaea eukarya

2.2. OQHEC

2.2.1. Observation

2.2.2. Question focus on expermental variable should be guided by Observations

2.2.3. Hypothesis possible explanation for the question

2.2.4. Experiment process to test Hypothesis experimental controls positive control negative control

2.2.5. Conclusion evidence based deduction about Hypthesis

2.3. data

2.3.1. quantitative numerical measurements

2.3.2. qualitative recorded descriptions

2.4. reasoning

2.4.1. inductive derive generalizations from large # of observations

2.4.2. deductive if-then logic flows from general to specific

2.4.3. theory broad in scope spins off many new hypothesis

2.5. feedback regulation

2.5.1. process regulated by its output or end product

3. Chapter 8

3.1. anabolic

3.1.1. require energy

3.2. catabolic

3.2.1. breaking things down

3.2.2. release energy

3.3. energy

3.3.1. used to do work

3.3.2. forms of energy? kinetic thermal mechanical electrical potential structural chemical

3.3.3. work move matter against opposing forces cell

3.3.4. 1st law of thermodynamics principle of conservation of energy energy cannot be created or destroyed transformation only some of it is useable, rest gets lost in unharness-able ways like heat or diffusion plants "transform" light to chemical energy spontaneous endorgonic equilibrium entropy measure of disorder or randomness organisms may decrease entropy as long as the total entropy of the universe increases organisms are islands of low entropy in an increasingly random universe

4. Chapter 4

4.1. Think of a mnemonic for 7 functional groups

4.1.1. HCC SPAM Break down the mnemonic Hydroxyl Carbonyl Carboxyl Sulfhydryl Phosphate Amino Methyl

5. Chapter 7

5.1. Structure

5.1.1. Fluid mosaics Lipids & proteins

5.2. Function

5.2.1. Selective permeability Passive transport No energy investment Active transport ATP used to move solutes against their gradients Bulk transport Exocytosis Endocytosis