Animal Cell

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Animal Cell создатель Mind Map: Animal Cell

1. Mitochondrion

1.1. Characteristics

1.1.1. Membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

1.1.2. 0.5-10 micrometers long

1.2. Functions

1.2.1. Power House

1.2.1.1. Produces ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) that is used as a source of chemical energy by the cell

1.2.2. Storage of Calcium Ions

1.2.2.1. Contributes to the cell's homeostasis of Calcium by rapidly taking in and storing the calcium ions

1.2.3. Other Metabolic Processes

1.2.3.1. 1. Regulation of the membrane potential 2. Apoptosis-programmed cell death 3. Calcium signaling (including calcium-evoked apoptosis) 4. Cellular proliferation regulation 5. Regulation of cellular metabolism 6. Certain heme synthesis reactions 7. Steroid synthesis 8. Controlling of cell growth + cell cycle

2. Golgi Apparatus

2.1. Functions

2.1.1. Forms part of the endomembrane system

2.1.2. Synthesis a large number of different macromolecules

2.1.2.1. Process and package macromolecules (E.g Proteins, Lipids) after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination

2.1.2.2. Modifies, sort and package these macromolecules for cell secretion (exocytosis) or use within the cell

2.1.3. Create lysosomes

2.1.3.1. Add carbohydrate or phosphates to substances to modify them into lysosomes

2.2. Characteristics

2.2.1. Organelle found in most eukaryotic cells

3. Nucleus

3.1. Characteristics

3.1.1. Membrane-enclosed organelle found in Eukaryotic cells

3.1.2. Contains most of the cell genetic material

3.1.2.1. Genetic materials are organized in long linear DNA Molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins

3.2. Functions

3.2.1. Control activities within the cell by regulating gene expression

3.2.2. Mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle and maintain integrity of genes

4. Cell Membrane

4.1. Characteristics

4.1.1. Also known as the Plasma Membrane

4.1.2. Surrounds all type of cells

4.1.3. Semi-Permeable

4.1.4. Contains wide variety of biological molecules, primarily Proteins and Lipids

4.2. Functions

4.2.1. Controls the movement in and out of the cells

4.2.1.1. Facilitates the transport of materials needed for survival

4.2.1.1.1. Passive Transport: Occurring without the input of cellular energy

4.2.1.1.2. Active Transport: Requires the cell to expend energy in moving the substances

4.2.2. Separates interior cell from the external environment

4.2.3. Serves as the attachment point for the intracellular cytoskeleton and, if present, the extracellular cell wall.

4.2.4. The cell membrane also plays a role in anchoring the cytoskeleton to provide shape to the cell, and in attaching to the extracellular matrix and other cells to help group cells together to form tissues.

5. Lysosomes

5.1. Characteristics

5.1.1. Spherical Oraganelles

5.1.2. Found in animal cells only

5.1.3. 0.1-1.2 micrometers big

5.2. Functions

5.2.1. Break up food to facilitate digestion

5.2.2. Engulf viruses and bacteria

5.2.3. Digest excess or worn out organelles

5.2.3.1. Digests macromolecules from phagocytosis (ingestion of other dying cells or larger extracellular material, like foreign invading microbes)

5.2.4. Only works at 4.5pH

6. Cytoplasm

6.1. Characteristics

6.1.1. Homogeneous

6.1.2. Clear-Jelly like Material

6.1.3. Fills most of the cells

6.1.4. Consists of cytosol and the cellular organelles, with the exception of the nucleus

6.1.4.1. The cytosol is made up of water, salts and organic molecules and many enzymes that catalyze reactions.

6.1.5. It is found within the plasma membrane of a cell and surrounds the nuclear envelope and the cytoplasmic organelles.

6.1.5.1. Mitochondria

6.2. Functions

6.2.1. Plays a Mechanical role

6.2.1.1. Maintain the shape, the consistency of the cell

6.2.1.2. Serves as Molecular Soup

6.2.1.2.1. Organelles are suspended and held together by fatty membrane

6.2.2. A storage place for chemical substances indispensable to life

6.2.2.1. Anaerobic glycolysis

6.2.2.2. Protein synthesis.

6.2.3. A site where most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways like glycolysis, and processes such as cell division