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Conflicts and Changes by Mind Map: Conflicts and
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Conflicts and Changes

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Key People

Louis-Joseph Papineau (1786-1871)

Life, born in Montreal, elected for legislative assembly in 1809, fled to United states then France then back to Canada in 1846 after amnesty, died in 1871

Significance, supported the reform, 1834 wrote the Ninety-Two Resolutions, tried to change government in a peaceful way, supported the rebellion

Interesting Facts, Papineau's supporters started the rebellion, his father was a seigneur

William Lyon Mackenzie (1795-1861)

Life, born in Scotland, moved to Upper Canada in 1820, elected for legislative assembly in 1828, then expelled in 1831, ran a newspaper called Colonial Advocate, re-elected for assembly 4 times, supported Reformers through newspaper in election of 1836

Significance, attacked political enemies through newsapaer, led an illegal rebellion against the Crown

Interesting Facts, there is a statue of him in Toronto, attacked many people though his newspaper, calling them nobodies etc

Sir Francis Bond Head (1793-1875)

Life, soldier in British army but retired in 1825, worked in South America for mining company, appointed lieutenant-governor in Upper Canada in 1835, appointed Reformers as execuitive council, ignored council's advice, 1836 legislative assembly accused Bond Head of interference with elections, shut down assembly

Significance, resisted the Reformers too much, interfered with many elections, after the Rebellion of 1837 British recalled him to London

Interesting Facts, never held a position in government again, supported the Tories

Lord Durham

Life, arrived in Quebec in June 1838 to:, find out why there had been rebellions, prepare and present report with recommendations to avoid more violence, 46 years old, supporter of reform, held meetings with groups and individuals, Reformers pressed Lord Durham to recommend a responsible government, pressed into joining the Canadas, had to decide between equal representation or representation by poplulation

Significance, Lord Durham's Report would help decide Canada's fate, Lord Durham's Report, Lord Durham's Report:, must end hostility between French and English, We do not need American system to solve problems in Canada, English must control both Canadas, French are primitive and have no culture, Canadas should be joined, should not be equal representatives for both Candas, Canada needs responsible government, wanted to assimilate the French into English, was a mediator

Interesting Facts, spoke French and English flently, real name is: John George Lamton, favoured the English

Robert Baldwin

Life, politician in Upper Canada

Significance, thought making minor changes to system

Interesting Facts

Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine

Life, politician in Lower Canada

Significance, thought making minor changes to system

Interesting Facts, thought there should be responsible goevernment, some appointed politicians, lieutenant-governor could just refuse to sign a bill passed


Russell Resolutions

1837, Lord John Russel (colonial secretary) responded with Russell Resolutions

Key Issues:, "unadvisable" to make legislative assembly an elected bidy, improve membership of executive council, impossible to be responsible to legislative assembly, may benefit to make this change, Crown is prepared to do this, legislature must give annual allowance

Union Act

Key Points:, Joined the Canadas, Canada East and Canada West: capital Kingston, one legislature, there would be equal representation, 65 representatives in legislature, for total of 130, responsible government was not mentioned in the Act

only remained in effect for 26 years

Minor Changes

People involved:, Louis-Hippolyte and Robert Baldwin

make minor changes to existing system

system needed some appointed officials

system needed responsible government

Major Changes

no appointed officials in government

voters choose all representatives

abolish lieutenant-governor, executive council, legislative council

argued as too American and radical

Reduce Influence of Canadiens

Lower Canada to Upper Canada: 450 000-150 000

power of English to be increased

Responsible government

1841, disagreement between Canada East and Canada West

1867, a new act replaced Union Act

British North America created Canadian Confederation


The Rebellions of 1837-1838

Causes, Undemocratic governments, voters elected representatives, but representatives have little power, political system:, voters elected representatives to legislative assemnly, governor appointed lieutenant-governor, lieutenant-governor appoints representatives to executive council and legislative council, if there was a bill that the governor did not like, he told executive council to vote against, would not be made into a law, if legislative assembly did not like bill passed by legislative council, could vote against, but governor could ask legislative council to pass an Order in Council, made into a law, if legislative assembly did not like bill passed by legislative council, could vote against, but governor could ask legislative council to pass an Order in Council, made into a law, Government Elites, each Canada had political elites, Upper Canada: Family Compact, mainly lawyers, landowners, clergy, rich merchants, Lower Canada: Chateau Clique, mainly lawyers, landowners, clergy, rich merchants, Economic Decline, prices for agricultural prices fell, incomes fell as well, mid-1830's farmers were almost bankrupt, government did not do anything, Decline of Seigneural System, seigneurs increased incomes, Lower Canadian government could not help the habitants, Quebec Act and Constitutional Act recognized the seigneurial system, Transportation, many things were moved by ship at this time, Upper Canada had: Rideau Canal, Welland Canal, St.Mary's Canal, Erie Canal, leaders in Upper Canada said Lower Canada was slow at building canals, Lower Canada had: Lachine Canal, Grenville and Carillon Canals

Rebellion: Upper Canada, Mackenzie with 400 rebels organized attack at Montgomery's Tavern, lost in December 1837, Mackenzie fled to U.S until 1849 then went back, Peter Matthews and Samuel Lont were his supporters, caught and hung

Rebellion: Lower Canada, November 1837, Patriote supporters captured seigneur manor at Saint-Denis, Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Gore failed to recapture manor, Saint-Charles army attacked Patriote camp, had about 100 armed rebels, lost the battle to army, Saint-Eustache, mid-December Sir John Colborne attacked Patriote camp with 1200 soldiers, 100 rebels killed

Hunters' Lodges and Freres Chasseurs, places near American borders, attracted many American members, mid-1838, 40 000-60 000 members, many invasions but defeated at Windsor/Prescott in Upper Canada, Napierville/Lacolle/Odelletown in Lower Canada

Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions

1834 Lower Canadian government passed the Ninety resolutions

was a list of grieveances

Key issues:, make the legislative council elected by the people, needs responsible government, abolish seigneurial system and and turn into freehold systems, abolish Crown's control over taxes in Lower Canada, give control to Lower Canadian government