Conflicts and Changes

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Conflicts and Changes by Mind Map: Conflicts and Changes

1. Key People

1.1. Louis-Joseph Papineau (1786-1871)

1.1.1. Life

1.1.1.1. born in Montreal

1.1.1.2. elected for legislative assembly in 1809

1.1.1.3. fled to United states then France then back to Canada in 1846 after amnesty

1.1.1.4. died in 1871

1.1.2. Significance

1.1.2.1. supported the reform

1.1.2.2. 1834 wrote the Ninety-Two Resolutions

1.1.2.3. tried to change government in a peaceful way

1.1.2.4. supported the rebellion

1.1.3. Interesting Facts

1.1.3.1. Papineau's supporters started the rebellion

1.1.3.2. his father was a seigneur

1.2. William Lyon Mackenzie (1795-1861)

1.2.1. Life

1.2.1.1. born in Scotland

1.2.1.2. moved to Upper Canada in 1820

1.2.1.3. elected for legislative assembly in 1828

1.2.1.4. then expelled in 1831

1.2.1.5. ran a newspaper called Colonial Advocate

1.2.1.6. re-elected for assembly 4 times

1.2.1.7. supported Reformers through newspaper in election of 1836

1.2.2. Significance

1.2.2.1. attacked political enemies through newsapaer

1.2.2.2. led an illegal rebellion against the Crown

1.2.3. Interesting Facts

1.2.3.1. there is a statue of him in Toronto

1.2.3.2. attacked many people though his newspaper, calling them nobodies etc

1.3. Sir Francis Bond Head (1793-1875)

1.3.1. Life

1.3.1.1. soldier in British army but retired in 1825

1.3.1.2. worked in South America for mining company

1.3.1.3. appointed lieutenant-governor in Upper Canada in 1835

1.3.1.4. appointed Reformers as execuitive council

1.3.1.5. ignored council's advice

1.3.1.6. 1836 legislative assembly accused Bond Head of interference with elections

1.3.1.7. shut down assembly

1.3.2. Significance

1.3.2.1. resisted the Reformers too much

1.3.2.2. interfered with many elections

1.3.2.3. after the Rebellion of 1837 British recalled him to London

1.3.3. Interesting Facts

1.3.3.1. never held a position in government again

1.3.3.2. supported the Tories

1.4. Lord Durham

1.4.1. Life

1.4.1.1. arrived in Quebec in June 1838 to:

1.4.1.1.1. find out why there had been rebellions

1.4.1.1.2. prepare and present report with recommendations to avoid more violence

1.4.1.2. 46 years old

1.4.1.3. supporter of reform

1.4.1.4. held meetings with groups and individuals

1.4.1.5. Reformers pressed Lord Durham to recommend a responsible government

1.4.1.6. pressed into joining the Canadas

1.4.1.7. had to decide between equal representation or representation by poplulation

1.4.2. Significance

1.4.2.1. Lord Durham's Report would help decide Canada's fate

1.4.2.1.1. Lord Durham's Report

1.4.2.2. Lord Durham's Report:

1.4.2.2.1. must end hostility between French and English

1.4.2.2.2. We do not need American system to solve problems in Canada

1.4.2.2.3. English must control both Canadas

1.4.2.2.4. French are primitive and have no culture

1.4.2.2.5. Canadas should be joined

1.4.2.2.6. should not be equal representatives for both Candas

1.4.2.2.7. Canada needs responsible government

1.4.2.2.8. wanted to assimilate the French into English

1.4.2.3. was a mediator

1.4.3. Interesting Facts

1.4.3.1. spoke French and English flently

1.4.3.2. real name is: John George Lamton

1.4.3.3. favoured the English

1.5. Robert Baldwin

1.5.1. Life

1.5.1.1. politician in Upper Canada

1.5.2. Significance

1.5.2.1. thought making minor changes to system

1.5.3. Interesting Facts

1.6. Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine

1.6.1. Life

1.6.1.1. politician in Lower Canada

1.6.2. Significance

1.6.2.1. thought making minor changes to system

1.6.3. Interesting Facts

1.6.3.1. thought there should be responsible goevernment

1.6.3.1.1. some appointed politicians

1.6.3.1.2. lieutenant-governor could just refuse to sign a bill passed

2. Changes

2.1. Russell Resolutions

2.1.1. 1837, Lord John Russel (colonial secretary) responded with Russell Resolutions

2.1.2. Key Issues:

2.1.2.1. "unadvisable" to make legislative assembly an elected bidy

2.1.2.2. improve membership of executive council, impossible to be responsible to legislative assembly

2.1.2.3. may benefit to make this change

2.1.2.4. Crown is prepared to do this

2.1.2.4.1. legislature must give annual allowance

2.2. Union Act

2.2.1. Key Points:

2.2.1.1. Joined the Canadas, Canada East and Canada West: capital Kingston

2.2.1.2. one legislature, there would be equal representation

2.2.1.2.1. 65 representatives in legislature, for total of 130

2.2.1.3. responsible government was not mentioned in the Act

2.2.2. only remained in effect for 26 years

2.3. Minor Changes

2.3.1. People involved:

2.3.1.1. Louis-Hippolyte and Robert Baldwin

2.3.2. make minor changes to existing system

2.3.3. system needed some appointed officials

2.3.4. system needed responsible government

2.4. Major Changes

2.4.1. no appointed officials in government

2.4.2. voters choose all representatives

2.4.3. abolish lieutenant-governor, executive council, legislative council

2.4.4. argued as too American and radical

2.5. Reduce Influence of Canadiens

2.5.1. Lower Canada to Upper Canada: 450 000-150 000

2.5.2. power of English to be increased

2.6. Responsible government

2.6.1. 1841, disagreement between Canada East and Canada West

2.6.2. 1867, a new act replaced Union Act

2.6.3. British North America created Canadian Confederation

3. Conflicts

3.1. The Rebellions of 1837-1838

3.1.1. Causes

3.1.1.1. Undemocratic governments

3.1.1.1.1. voters elected representatives, but representatives have little power

3.1.1.1.2. political system:

3.1.1.2. Government Elites

3.1.1.2.1. each Canada had political elites

3.1.1.3. Economic Decline

3.1.1.3.1. prices for agricultural prices fell, incomes fell as well

3.1.1.4. Decline of Seigneural System

3.1.1.4.1. seigneurs increased incomes

3.1.1.5. Transportation

3.1.1.5.1. many things were moved by ship at this time

3.1.2. Rebellion: Upper Canada

3.1.2.1. Mackenzie with 400 rebels organized attack at Montgomery's Tavern, lost in December 1837

3.1.2.1.1. Mackenzie fled to U.S until 1849 then went back

3.1.3. Rebellion: Lower Canada

3.1.3.1. November 1837, Patriote supporters captured seigneur manor at Saint-Denis, Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Gore failed to recapture manor

3.1.3.2. Saint-Charles army attacked Patriote camp

3.1.3.2.1. had about 100 armed rebels, lost the battle to army

3.1.3.3. Saint-Eustache

3.1.3.3.1. mid-December Sir John Colborne attacked Patriote camp with 1200 soldiers

3.1.3.3.2. 100 rebels killed

3.1.4. Hunters' Lodges and Freres Chasseurs

3.1.4.1. places near American borders

3.1.4.2. attracted many American members

3.1.4.3. mid-1838, 40 000-60 000 members

3.1.4.4. many invasions but defeated at Windsor/Prescott in Upper Canada, Napierville/Lacolle/Odelletown in Lower Canada

3.2. Papineau's Ninety-Two Resolutions

3.2.1. 1834 Lower Canadian government passed the Ninety resolutions

3.2.2. was a list of grieveances

3.2.3. Key issues:

3.2.3.1. make the legislative council elected by the people

3.2.3.2. needs responsible government

3.2.3.3. abolish seigneurial system and and turn into freehold systems

3.2.3.4. abolish Crown's control over taxes in Lower Canada, give control to Lower Canadian government