India 1857-90

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India 1857-90 by Mind Map: India 1857-90

1. Population size of India: 1850: 200 million/ 1901: 236 million / 1921: 251 million/ 1951: 261 million

2. Bckgrnd Info

2.1. EIC: cloths/spices. Royal Charter 1600

2.2. From 1757 w/ own armies: sepoys- military power/admin functions >maximise profit took large areas of land

2.3. 1818: new source income- land taxes > Indians used to pay to Indian rulers.

2.4. 1840's-50's Gov Gen of India Lord Dalhousie> Doctrine of Lapse- acquire territory. If Indian ruler died w/o heir Br could take territory.

3. Religion

3.1. Differences: Hinduism- religious majority

3.2. 20% Muslim

3.3. Other religions: Seikh, Catholicism- in areas of Br rule- missionaries

4. Events of the Mutiny

4.1. 3 months for BR troops restore Delhi > 40,000 revolted

4.2. Struggle for Lucknow lasted 12 months > 60,000 mutinied

4.3. Bitter struggle Cawnpore- 1000 Br citizens starved into submission. When Br arrived Sepoys refused to surrender but threw dead women over the walls > Br crushed the revolt. Sepoys forced to lick the blood then hanged

4.4. Br finally defeated the mutiny in June 1858. Reprisals appalling- executions w/o trial/bitterness. 8/7/58 peace treaty signed rebellion ended

5. Impact/ Consequences of the Mutiny

5.1. 100,000 Indians had been killed in uprising

5.2. Army of retribution: justified by atrocities, as well as hanging bkew some fro cannon (Mughal traditiion), 'no prisoners' approach

5.3. Br press exaggerated killings/wounded which were much higher on Indian side.

5.4. Last Mughal emperor tried for treason executed 1862.

5.5. Restricted Indian entry into the ICS

5.6. End og the EIC> Crown. EIC land became part of the crown >1858 Gov of India Act

6. Military

6.1. 1/ Br ended extra Sepoy pay for fighting abroad- Bhatta> need for purification

6.2. 2/ Sepoy pay and condiitons dramatically lower than Br - increased differences/ disrespectful to Sepoys- divide

6.3. 3/ Br losses in Afghan War of EIC affected morale of Sepoys

6.4. 4/ More sepoys needed as EIC army sent abroad- Opium Wars/Crimea/Afghan etc

6.5. 5/ Increased intensions within army- Bengal army felt unwanted on arrival- lower castes

7. Religious

7.1. 1/ Br ignored religious customs/ traditions : Hindu purification (left country- unclean- lots of money to purify)

7.2. 2/ Omen's rumour: Br troops weakened in Crimea- superiooty over- 100 years since Battle of Plassey- prophesy Br rule would end in 1857

7.3. 3/ Lee Enfield Rifle: bite into catridges with pig fat> against Hindu/Muslim religion- unclean

8. Political

8.1. 1/ Lord Dalhousie: Doctrine of Lapse-lack of heir- Br would take over that land

8.2. 2/ Policy of Westernisation: B and D enforced culture- legal system-religion upon the Indians

9. Social

9.1. 1/ Br officers became more dismissive- trust was lost between Indians and Br. Increased intolerance/ lack of involvement/concern. Leaders were replaced w/ arrogant rulers.

9.2. 2/ Br offended Bengali army by recruiting others outside the Hindu caste system (Ghurkas/sikhs)- increased distrust

9.3. 3/ Ban of Sutee by Bentinck - widowed women byrnt alive on funeral- not allowed to remarry- tradiiton

9.4. 4/ Ended child infanticide- killed girls made illegal- tradition

10. Economics:

10.1. 1/ Punitive tax system: Harsher than in Br- peasants expected to pay- kept them impoverished

10.2. 2/ Br purposefully destroyed industrialisation opportunities- EIC employees destroyed looms- ensure theu were dependent/ couldn't compete w/ Br- impoverished

10.3. 3/ Lord Bentinck resumptiion of tax free lands caused resentment among middle class/aristocrats

11. Causes of Indian Mutiny