Conflict and Change

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Conflict and Change by Mind Map: Conflict and Change

1. Key People

1.1. Sir Francis Bond Head 1793-1875

1.1.1. Backround

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1.2. Backround: Sir Francis Bond head was a soldier in the British army, and retired as a major in 1825. He spent many years in South America, working for a mining company as an engeneer.

1.3. Acheivements: In 1835, Bond Head was named lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada. Being lietenant-governor, he would be the representative of the Crown.

1.4. Significance: Bond Heads enterference in elections and his support for the Tories how far he would go to resist the Reformers. After the Rebellion of 1837, the British government lost confidence in Bond Head. It recalled him to London and appointed a replacement. He never again held a position in government.

1.5. Louis-Joseph Papineau (1786-1871)

1.6. Backround: Papineau was one of Lower Canadas prevellaged people, for his father was a seigneur. He was born in Montreal and learned to become a lawyer. Eventually, he became to grow an interest in politics and was elected to the legislative assembly in 1809.

1.7. Acheivements: Papineau helped the reform. He belived that the elected assembly should have more power than the appointed parts of the government. He had travelled to Londond, England to try and persuade the British government to reform the system in Lower Canada. The British disagreed, so he retuned back to Lower Canada. He spent a very long time trying to increase reform. In 1834, he published the Ninety-Two Resolutions, a list of demands for reform. His supporters were called the Patriotes. A number of them wanted to rebel against the government. Yet, Papineau tried to acheive his goal in a peacefull way.

1.8. Segnificance: Initially, Papineau was the voice of moderate reform in the 1830's. He tried to acheive what he wanted through a peacefull way, but he had figured out that this wouldnt work out. He dies in 1871, at the age of 95.

2. Conflict

2.1. Wars: War is the most sever type of conflict. War is a type of conflict where nations fight nations. Mostly, wars are long lasting and go up to years, causing many deaths of soldiers and civillians. Many of the wars in britsh North America were long lasting with many long term and short term causes. There also were many wars in British North America, like the Seven Years War, (between the British and the French) The War of 1812, and many more.

2.2. Rebellions: There are several cases of rebbelion in history. A rebbelion is basically when citezens fight against the authorities in power. Rebbellions can cause a lot of damage, but not as much as wars, because it doesent include many weapons.

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2.3. Protests and Demonstrations: Protests and Demonstrations are ways people use to show their displeasure about something. Such events can be peacefull, but they can also get out of hand. The police are ussualy brought onto the streets to keep order and to protect the innocent.

2.4. Strikes: In the 1800's, working conditions wer bad and wages low. Workers frequently organized strikes and protests to demand better conditions. People go on strikes becuase they want their rights against the government to make changes to a certain thing or to get what they want.

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3. Change

3.1. Aftermath of the Rebbelions: The rebbelions were a horrifying surprise to Upper as well as Lower Canada. The British Government evventually figured out they would have to make changes in the method to help from issues like this in the future from not happening.

3.2. Should the Government Make Develope Bigger Changes to the Existing System?: A number of politicians thought that there shouldn't be any appointed officials in government. The people should vote and this system should also occur in the U.S. It was recomended that the British should abolish the positions of lietenant-governor, executive council, and legislative council. They should replace these appointed positions with elected ones. apparently, these changes were radical, or extreame to the opponents of these views. They avoided the changes so their system wasen't too American.

3.3. Should the Government Make Minor Changes to the Existing System?: Robert Baldwin in Upper Canada and Louis-Hippolyte LaFountain in Lower Canada thought that making of minor changes was enough to change in the existing system. They discussed about Canada having a more respoinsible government. In a system like that, there are stilll appointed politicians. In the rules of a responsible government, any bill passed by the legislative assembly would have to turn into a law. In the 1830's, if the lietenant-governor disagreed with a bill passed by the assembly, he could refuse to sighn it so it dosen't become a law.

3.4. Should the Government Reduct the Influence of the Canadiens?: A number of people had said that the situation was a lot worst in Lower Canada. The fighting was more organized and went on for a longer time. Several of them felt that there would never be peace in the Canadas unless the position of the Canadians, who outnumbered English Canadians in Lower Canada bt 450 00 to 150 000, was weakened. They wanted the British to change the system so the English Canadians would have more power. Apparently, No matter what the British did, it never seemed to satisfy everyone. Most of the time the government ends up making some groups happy and others disapointed.

4. William Lyon Makenzie (1795-1861)

4.1. Acheivements: Makenzie was appointed to the legislative assembly in 1828 as a good helper of reform. But he was expelled in 1831 for publishing libels. Makenzie owmned a newspaper called the Colonial Advocate. He used language that was insulting to his enemies due to his mean temper. A lot of people hated Makenzie for him calling them insulting words. But despite his enemies, he was re-elected to the assembly four times. Though each time, he was not aloud to take his seat there because of his previouse libels. While the election in 1836, he published his support of the Reform Party in his newspaper.

4.2. Segnificance : Makenzie wrote very mean things about his enemies and he led an illegal rebbelion against the crown, but he was found to be a man who stood up for what he belived and went against the government which was corrupt and tyrannical.

4.3. Acheivements: William Lyon Makenzie was appointed to the legislative assembly in 1828 as a good helper of reform. He had a very aggressive temper and owned a newspaper called Colonial Advocate. He would publish articles which were insulting to his enemies, which many of them hate Makenzie. Even though he had many enemies, he was re-elected to the assembly four times, but everytime, he was stopped from taking his seat becuase of the previouse libels. While the election of 1835, he published his support of the Reform Party in his newspaper. The Reformers had lost the election, and Makenzie blamed it on the lieutenant-governor for openly supporting the Family Compact.

5. Lord Durham and His Work

5.1. Introduction: Lord Durham was invited into the Canadas to help them resolve their issues and to help make a more responsible government

5.2. Responsible Government: The Reformers strongly suggested that Lord Durham suggests a more responsible government for the Canadas. The elected legislative council and the lieutenant-governor would not be able to grant the wishes of the appointed legislative assembly.

5.3. Joining The Canadas: Politicians in Upper Canada wanted to make Upper Candas economic developement higher. They thought that since It took Upper Canada a long time develope the canals, the system was holding back in it. It was said that if the Canadas were joined, then Upper Canda would have to pick up the pace of their developement.

5.4. The Question of Representation: Lord Durham was thinking that if the Candas were joines should their representatives be chosen by equal representation or representation by population. Equal REpresentation is when each region has the same number of elected representatives. Representation by population is when the number of representatives is determined by the size of the populationin the region represented.

5.5. Lord Durhams Report: Lord Durham Had to write a report to convey the British government to his opinion. Durham wrote things such as he found two nations fighting over the stuggle of race not principal, and he also suggested that the British can rely on the English population alone. Also He stated that the French of Lower Canada are primitive people who lack a sence of history and culture.

6. Lord Durham and His Work

6.1. Lord Durham was invited to Canda in 1838 and he arrived in Quebec city. His perpouse of presence was so that he could find out why there had been rebellions in Lower Canada and to prepare and present a report making reccomendations for avoiding further violence.

6.2. Responsible Government: Reformers really persuaded Lord Durham to suggest a responsible government for the Candas. The elected legislative council and the lieutenant-governor werent able to grant the wishes of the appointed legislative assembly.

6.3. Joining The Canadas: Politicians wanted to make the economic developement in Upper Canada increase. The fact that Lower Candas developement in making the canal system was taking much time, it would hold back for when the Candas would be joines, so Lower Canada had to speed up its pace so there werent any problems.

6.4. Representation: Durham had to decide and persuade the British on how to represent each Canadas representatives. Should it be equal representation, or representation by population. Equal representation is when each region has the same number of representatives. Representation by population is when the number of representatives is determined by the size of the population in the region represented

6.5. Lord Durhams Report: Lord Durham had written a report to the British, expressing his thoughts towards what he had obseved coming to the Candas. He had written things such as how he found two nations going through the struggle of not principals, but races, also saying that they did not have to change their system into American to resolve problems in Canada. He had stated that the English population should been given to most power to take over, and the Frech population in Canda were people who are primitive and lack a sence of history and culture.

6.6. The British Decition: The BRitish government had decided to pass the Union Act in 1840, in responce of Durhams report. In the Union Act, the Candas were joined together, being named Canada East and Canada West, and it was choosen to use equal representation and each province would have gotten 65 representatives. The grant of a responsible government was not mentioned in the Union Act, it wasen't granted or refused.