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ENGL101 by Mind Map: ENGL101

1. Words

1.1. Articles

1.1.1. Definite Article

1.1.1.1. The

1.1.2. Indefinite Article

1.1.2.1. A, an

1.2. Determiners

1.2.1. Possessive

1.2.1.1. My, yours, his

1.2.2. WH-

1.2.2.1. Whose, what, which

1.2.3. Indefinite

1.2.3.1. Some, many, each, most, other

1.2.4. Demonstrative

1.2.4.1. This, these, that, those

1.2.5. Numerals

1.2.5.1. One, two, first, second, next, half, last

1.3. Pronouns

1.3.1. Substitutes for nouns

1.3.1.1. He, I, we, which

1.3.2. Reflexive Pronouns

1.3.2.1. I hurt MYSELF

1.3.3. Relative Pronouns

1.3.3.1. Who, whoever, whom, whomever, that, which, when, where, whose

1.4. Prepositions

1.4.1. Time

1.4.1.1. About, after, at

1.4.2. Place

1.4.2.1. About, above, near

1.4.3. Purpose, cause, association, attitude

1.4.3.1. About, despite, due to, apart from

1.5. Conjunctions

1.5.1. Coordinating

1.5.1.1. And, but, or

1.5.2. Subcoordinating

1.5.2.1. After, although, since

1.6. Verbs

1.6.1. Lexical Verb

1.6.1.1. Expresses action or state

1.6.1.2. Is the key part of the verb phrase

1.6.2. Auxiliary Verbs

1.6.2.1. Primary Auxiliaries

1.6.2.1.1. Have, be, do

1.6.2.2. Modal Auxiliaries

1.6.2.2.1. Can, could, should, will, might

1.7. Adverbs

1.7.1. Manner

1.7.1.1. She cut the wire CAREFULLY

1.7.1.2. QUIETLY, she read the book

1.7.2. Place

1.7.2.1. Put the parcel HERE

1.7.2.2. She turned the key CLOCKWISE

1.7.3. Time

1.7.3.1. The song lasted FOREVER

1.7.3.2. He phones her NIGHTLY

1.7.4. Degree

1.7.4.1. She found her job PARTICULARLY difficult in winter

1.7.4.2. She ignored him SIMPLY to make a point

1.7.4.3. She loved him, and he loved her TOO

2. Accents

2.1. Phonemes

2.1.1. Smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language

2.1.1.1. /f/ vs /r/

2.1.2. Words which differ by only one phoneme are called a "Minimal Pair"

2.1.2.1. /fed/ vs /red/

2.2. Allophones

2.2.1. Phonemes are essentially an 'abstract concept', and thus 'real life' pronunciations differ from phonemic citation form

2.2.2. Different phonetic realisations of a phoneme

2.2.2.1. e.g. allophones of /t/ include [d], [ʔ], [ɾ]

2.2.3. The semantic meaning of a word doesn't change when you use allophones of a sound

2.3. RP - Received Pronunciation

2.3.1. Conservative RP

2.3.1.1. Quite old-fashioned e.g. The Queen's pronunciation

2.3.2. Advanced RP

2.3.2.1. More modern e.g. Downton Abbey pronunciation

2.3.3. Lots of prestige associated with RP

2.3.4. Used to compare other English dialects

2.3.5. Used for phonemic descriptions of English

2.4. Accents and Speech Variation

2.4.1. [l] Vocalisation

2.4.1.1. In some English varieties, a dark [ɫ] can be pronounced as a vowel

2.4.1.1.1. e.g. ball, uncle - L is pronounced as [ʊ]

2.4.2. Glottal Stop

2.4.2.1. Widespread in many (urban) varieties of English

2.4.2.2. [ʔ] replaces /t/

2.4.2.3. Likely a result of diffusion from London and the South East

2.4.3. TH-Fronting

2.4.3.1. Where /ð/ and /θ/ are replaced, commonly with [v] and [f]

2.4.3.2. Assumed to be diffusing from London

2.4.4. Velar Nasal Plus

2.4.4.1. The Velar Nasal /ŋ/ + [g] = [ŋg]

2.4.4.2. Affects words like 'singer' or 'long'

2.4.4.3. Used in Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool and Derby, but not Nottingham

2.4.4.3.1. Differentiates the accents of the West and East Midlands

2.4.5. H-Dropping

2.4.5.1. An example of elision

2.4.5.2. In some areas, it is used as an identity marker

2.4.6. Monophthongal FACE

2.4.6.1. Where words that should contain /eɪ/ diphthongs are now monophthongal

2.4.6.1.1. /feɪs/ = [feːs]

2.4.6.1.2. /skwɛə/ = [sqwɛː]

2.4.6.2. Particularly common in the North, but not categorical to it

2.4.7. Rhoticity

2.4.7.1. The presence or absence of /r/ in words like 'cars'

2.4.7.1.1. Used in Scottish English, Irish English, some Lancashire and West country Englishes

2.4.7.1.2. Not used in RP and the majority of English Dialects

3. Morphology

3.1. Word Formation

3.1.1. Derivation (by prefixation and suffixation)

3.1.1.1. Adding an element to the original word which changes the word class

3.1.1.2. friend - friendLY / UNfriend

3.1.2. Conversion/Functional Shift

3.1.2.1. The creation of a new word from an existing one

3.1.2.1.1. Green (adj) - green (noun)

3.1.2.1.2. Switch (verb) - switch (noun)

3.1.3. Compounding

3.1.3.1. A combination of at least 2 free morphemes

3.1.3.1.1. Endocentric = semantically transparent meaning

3.1.3.1.2. Exocentric = semantically unintelligible meaning

3.1.4. Backformation

3.1.4.1. Where the part that is reanalysed as an affix is removed

3.1.4.1.1. editor - edit

3.1.4.1.2. babysitter - babysit

3.1.4.2. Etymology must be known

3.1.5. Clippings

3.1.5.1. Shortening long words by dropping a part

3.1.5.1.1. Influenza - flu

3.1.6. Blending

3.1.6.1. A word is formed by joining 2 parts of different words after clipping

3.1.6.1.1. Breakfast + Lunch = Brunch

3.1.6.2. Acronym

3.1.7. Acronyms

3.1.7.1. A group of words are reduced to their initial letters to form a new word

3.1.7.1.1. RADAR = Radio Detecting And Ranging

3.1.8. Word form

3.1.8.1. The different grammatically specified forms of a given lexeme

3.1.8.1.1. Runner - meaning has changed from 'to run' to 'someone who runs'

3.2. Morpheme

3.2.1. Variants of a morpheme = Allomorphs

3.2.2. Prefix - MISread

3.2.3. A minimal unit which has a meaning or grammatical function

3.2.4. Free = Lexeme

3.2.4.1. Lexical (open)

3.2.4.1.1. Content word - READ

3.2.4.2. Grammatical (closed)

3.2.4.2.1. Function word - AND

3.2.5. Bound = affix

3.2.5.1. Lexical (open)

3.2.5.1.1. Derivational affix

3.2.5.2. Grammatical (closed)

3.2.5.2.1. Inflectional affix

4. Syntax

4.1. Phrases

4.1.1. Endocentric Phrases

4.1.1.1. Noun Phrase (NP)

4.1.1.1.1. Determiner

4.1.1.1.2. Premodifier

4.1.1.1.3. HEAD

4.1.1.1.4. Postmodifier

4.1.1.2. Adjective Phrase (AdjP)

4.1.1.2.1. Premodifier

4.1.1.2.2. HEAD

4.1.1.2.3. Postmodifier

4.1.1.3. Adverb Phrase (AdvP)

4.1.1.3.1. Premodifier

4.1.1.3.2. HEAD

4.1.1.3.3. Postmodifier

4.1.1.4. Verb Phrase (VP)

4.1.1.4.1. Premodifier

4.1.1.4.2. Head

4.1.2. Exocentric Phrases

4.1.2.1. Prepositional Phrase

4.1.2.1.1. Preposition

4.1.2.1.2. Complement

4.1.3. Constituents

4.1.3.1. Determiner (NP only)

4.1.3.2. Premodifiers

4.1.3.3. HEAD element

4.1.3.4. Post Modifier(s)

4.2. Syntactic Functions

4.2.1. Subject (Sub)

4.2.1.1. The agent or 'doer' of the verbal action

4.2.1.2. The recipient of an action

4.2.1.3. Usually the first element of a declarative sentence

4.2.2. Verb Element/Predicator (V)

4.2.2.1. The central element of a sentence

4.2.2.2. Describes the action/process/state of being

4.2.3. Objects

4.2.3.1. Direct Object (Od)

4.2.3.1.1. The entity affected by the action/process described by the verb

4.2.3.1.2. What/who did they [verb]?

4.2.3.2. Indirect Object (Oi)

4.2.3.2.1. The recipient or beneficiary of the action of the verb

4.2.3.2.2. Will not occur without a direct object

4.2.4. Complements

4.2.4.1. Indicated by: be, become, seem, sound, feel

4.2.4.2. Subject Complement (Cs)

4.2.4.2.1. Refer back to the subject of the sentence

4.2.4.2.2. Usually an adjective

4.2.4.2.3. [you] [will be] [OLDER]

4.2.4.3. Object Complement (Co)

4.2.4.3.1. Refers back to the direct object of the sentence

4.2.4.3.2. Sentence must have a direct object in order to have an object complement

4.2.4.3.3. [The Beatles] [appointed] [Brian Epstein] [MANAGER]

4.2.5. Adverbial (A)

4.2.5.1. Meaning is similar to that of an adverb

4.2.5.2. Denotes time, place, manner

4.2.5.3. Adverbials can be deleted from the sentence and the sentence will still make sense

5. Language Format

5.1. Phonemes

5.1.1. /p/ /l/ /eɪ/ /s/ /m/ /ɘ/ /n/ /t/

5.2. Morphemes

5.2.1. place + ment

5.3. Words

5.3.1. <placement>

5.4. Phrases

5.4.1. [an accurate placement]

5.5. Sentences

5.5.1. That's an accurate placement of a comma

6. Phonetics

6.1. Place of Articulation

6.1.1. Bilabial

6.1.1.1. Sounds are made with both lips

6.1.1.1.1. /p/, /b/, /m/

6.1.2. Labiodental

6.1.2.1. Sounds are made with the lower lip and upper teeth

6.1.2.1.1. /f/, /v/

6.1.3. Dental

6.1.3.1. The tip of the tongue is near the teeth

6.1.3.1.1. /θ/, /ð/

6.1.4. Alveolar

6.1.4.1. The tip of the tongue is at or near the alveolar ridge

6.1.4.1.1. /t/, /d/, /n/, /s/

6.1.5. Post-Alveolar

6.1.5.1. The tip of the tongue is just past the alveolar ridge, but not as far back as the hard palate

6.1.5.1.1. /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /ʧ/, /ʤ/

6.1.6. Palatal

6.1.6.1. The tongue is at or near the hard palate

6.1.6.1.1. /j/

6.1.7. Velar

6.1.7.1. The back of the tongue approaches or touches the velum

6.1.7.1.1. /k/, /g/, /ŋ/

6.1.8. Glottal

6.1.8.1. Sounds are produced furthest back in the throat, with no obstructions

6.1.8.1.1. /h/

6.2. Manner of Articulation

6.2.1. Plosives

6.2.1.1. The air is trapped, then abruptly and forcefully released

6.2.1.1.1. /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/

6.2.2. Nasals

6.2.2.1. The velum is lowered to direct airflow into the nose

6.2.2.1.1. /m/, /n/, /ŋ/

6.2.3. Affricates

6.2.3.1. A complete blockage is created in the mouth, but it the air is released much more slowly

6.2.3.1.1. /ʧ/, /ʤ/

6.2.4. Fricatives

6.2.4.1. Friction is created as the air passes through the gap

6.2.4.1.1. /s/, /z/, /h/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /h/

6.2.5. Approximants

6.2.5.1. The articulators come together but no friction is produced because the space between them is too wide

6.2.5.1.1. /w/, /l/, /j/, /r/