Foundations of Education By: Braiden Butler

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Foundations of Education By: Braiden Butler by Mind Map: Foundations of Education By: Braiden Butler

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 Purposes of Education:

1.2. INTELLECTUAL- teaching skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics

1.2.1. POLITICAL- prepares students to become familiar with order and how a working society runs.

1.2.1.1. SOCIAL- purposes of school is to instill beliefs, practices, and good behavior in students.

1.2.1.1.1. ECONOMIC- purposes are to prepare kids for their future jobs,

1.3. The role of the school:

1.4. The school should encourage and reward students for good behavior.

1.4.1. Conservatives perspective: Believes schools need to socialize students into adult roles. There view is to produce hard working citizens.

1.4.2. Liberal perspective: Believes that all students have equal opportunity to succeed in society. School's role enables students to develop his/her talents, creativity, and sense of self!

1.5. Explanations of unequal educational performance :

1.6. Conservatives: argue students rise and fall on their own intelligence.

1.6.1. Liberals: ensure equal opportunity for all students.

1.6.1.1. Radicals: reduce inequality of inequality of educational results.

1.7. Definition of Educational Problems:

1.8. Schools lowered standards in the 60s-70s which came to be known as the decline of standards.

1.8.1. The decline of cultural literacy is when schools dumb down curriculum and American and Western heritage.

1.8.1.1. The decline of values or of civilization refers to schools who lose their moral standards and values.

1.8.1.1.1. Schools lost their traditional disciplinary function and schools became chaotic which is referred to as the decline of authority.

2. The History of Education

2.1. The Civil Rights Movement:

2.2. The Civil Rights Movement has had the most influence on education in my opinion. This movement has hundreds risk their life for equal opportunity at an education. The court case Brown v. The Board of Education ruled that segregation of schools was unconstitutional.

2.3. Historical interpretation from Conservatives perspective :

2.4. Curriculum should be fair and non racist. Conservatives believe schools have expanded opportunities for students.

2.5. Ravitch's perspective points out the decline of educational standards within the context of political movements to move us closer to a fair and just society.

3. The Philosophy of Education

3.1. Existentialism:

3.1.1. Generic Notions:

3.1.1.1. Focus on consciousness, perception, and meaning. Existentialist believe that individuals are place on this earth alone and must make sense out of the chaos. How concerns impact lives of individuals.

3.1.2. Goal of Education:

3.1.2.1. Focus on needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively. Education should stress individuality.

3.1.3. Role of the Teacher:

3.1.3.1. Should help students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can. Must do everything to make students awake and ready to learn.

3.1.4. Method of Instruction:

3.1.4.1. Intensely personal. Each child had different learning styles and it is the teachers responsibility to find out how each student learns.

3.1.5. Curriculum:

3.1.5.1. Extisentialist are biased toward the humanities, Art, literature, drama, and music also encourage personal interaction.

3.1.6. Key researchers:

3.1.6.1. Soren Kierkegaard 1813-1855

3.1.6.2. Martin Buber 1878- 1965

3.1.6.3. Karl Jaspen- 1883-1969

3.1.6.4. Jean Paul Sartre & Maxine Greene 1905- 1986

3.1.6.5. Edmund Husserl 1859-1935

3.1.6.6. Martin Heldegger 1889-1976

3.1.6.7. Maurice Merleau- Pontry 1908-1961

4. The Sociology of Education

4.1. Functionalism:

4.1.1. View society as a machine, where one part articulates with another to make society work. Functionalist use structures, programs, and curriculum that encourages social unity.

4.2. Conflict Theory:

4.2.1. Schools are similar to a social battlefield, teachers, students, and administrators struggle together. Conflict socilogist don't see relation between school and society as straight forward.

4.3. Interactionalism:

4.3.1. Relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflicting perspectives.

4.4. Five Affects of schooling that have the greatest impact

4.4.1. Knowledge & Attributes:

4.4.1.1. Schools that are academically oriented produce higher rates of learning. How much kids are in school reflects how much they learn.

4.4.2. Employment:

4.4.2.1. Schools prepare students to be hardworking citizens. Those students who graduate from college will have a better opportunity in the work field for a higher paying job.

4.4.3. Education & Mobility:

4.4.3.1. The number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects their mobility. Education opens the doors of opportunity for students.

4.4.4. Teacher Behavior:

4.4.4.1. Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior. When teachers expect more, student produce better work.

4.4.5. Student Peer groups & alienation:

4.4.5.1. Students cultures play an important role in shaping the student. Schools develop cultures, traditions, and restraints that profoundly influence those who work and study them.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. District State Board Representative : Russell Johnson

5.1.1. House of Representatives: Mo Brooks

5.1.2. Senators: Doug Jones and Richard Shelby

5.2. State Superintendent: Michael Sentence

5.2.1. Local Superintendent: Trey Holiday

5.3. Elements of change within a schools culture and processes:

5.3.1. School is an until of interacting personalities.

5.3.1.1. Changing the cultures of schools requires patience, skill, and good will.

5.3.1.1.1. Schools cultures are extremely vulnerable to disruption and that continuity is often maintained by the use of authority.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist curriculum theory

6.1.1. Needs and interest of the student rather than the needs of society.

6.2. 2 Dominant traditions of teaching:

6.2.1. Mimetic: the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

6.2.1.1. Transformative: defines the function of education more broadly.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impact of Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Most who are born into a social class remain there. The percentage who rise above their social class is low but not impossible.

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Directly impacts education.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Years ago gender was an issue. Is still exists but is not as frequent of an issue.

7.2. 1982 Coleman Study

7.2.1. Responses

7.2.1.1. Differences among schools do make a difference. Private schools demand more from their students than public schools.

7.2.1.2. It was suggested that private schools were more effective learning environments due to emphasize and enforce discipline.

8. Explanations of Educational Inequality:

8.1. Cultural Differences Theories:

8.1.1. Working class and nonwhite students are seen as resisting dominant culture of schools. Students begin to reject school and enter into the work world.

8.1.1.1. Macrosociological Perspective- working class students adapt to unequal aspects of class structure.

8.2. School Centered Explanations:

8.2.1. School Financing- differences between the poor and rich districts.

8.2.1.1. School Climates- differences in what the school has to offer affects academic performance.

8.2.1.1.1. Curriculum and Ability Grouping- students are separated according to scores, gender, race , or teacher referrals.

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement :

9.1. 2 School Based Reforms:

9.1.1. Teacher Quality- all teachers must be highly qualified teachers often teach out of field as well.

9.1.2. Teacher Education- lack of rigor in teacher prep program, lack of intellectual requirement in teacher prep program, their judging on the test scores.