Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Existentialism- Existentialism is a rather modern philosophy. Although its roots can be traced backed to the Bible, as a philosophy that has relevance to education, one may date existentialism as beginning with the nineteenth-century European philosopher Soren Kierkegaard. Most recent philosophers who work in this school include Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre, and the contemporary philosopher Maxine Green.

1.1. Generic Notions- Because existentialism is an individualistic philosophy, many of its adherents argue that it is not a particular school of philosophy. However, there are certain notions to which a majority of existentialists adhere. Existentialists pose question as to how their concerns impact on the lives of individuals. Basically, existentialists believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must take some sense out of the chaos they encounter.

2. 4. Economic Purposes- to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor. The degree to which schools directly prepare students for work varies from society to society, but most schools have at least an indirect role in this process.

3. Purposes of Education

4. 1. Intellectual Purposes- to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge in literature, history, the sciences, etc.; and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

5. 3. Social Purposes- to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society. This process, referred to by sociologists as socialization, is a key ingredient to the stability of any society.

6. 2. Political Purposes- to inculcate allegiance to the existing political political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order(in political democracies); to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order; and to teach children the basic laws of the society

7. Chapter 2: Politics and Education

7.1. Perspectives

7.1.1. The Role of the School- The Conservative Perspective sees the role of the as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to the maintenance of the social order. Finally, they see the school's function as one of transmitting the cultural traditions through what is taught (the curriculum). Therefore, the conservative perspective views the role of the school as essential to both economic productivity and social stability. Explanations of Unequal Performance- The liberal perspectives argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages as others. Therefore, society must attempt through policies and programs to equalize the playing field so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance. Definition of Educational Problems- The radical perspective argues the following points: That educational system has failed the poor, minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic policies. Also, the schools have stifled critical understanding of the problems of American society through a curriculum and teaching practices that promote uniformity. Third, the traditional curriculum is classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic and leaves out the cultures, histories, and voices of the oppresses. Last, the educational system promotes inequality of both opportunity and results.

8. Chapter 3: The History Of Education

8.1. The Age Of Reform: The Rise of the Common School- Historians point to the period from 1820 to 1860 in the U.S. as one in which enormous changes took place with unprecedented speed. The industrial Revolution, which began in the textile industry in England, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and brought its factory system with its new machinery to urban areas, particularly in the North. Urban clusters grew more dense as migrants from agricultural areas and immigrants from Europe flocked to the factories, looking for work. By 1850, these immigrants included large group of Roman Catholics who were escaping starvation in Ireland. Westward expansion, aided in part by the revolution in part by the land hunger of pioneers, extended to settlements in Oregon and California by 1850. By 1828, when Andrew Jackson was elected president, all men (expect slaves and emotional disturbed people) had obtained the right to vote. In the decades following, groups of reformers- quite different from such archetypes of rationalism as Franklin and Jefferson emerged. These men and women often lacked higher education and didn't hold public office but often articulated their ideas with the fervor of evangelical christianity.

8.2. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School: Ralph Waldo Emerson, a New England essayist and philosopher, wrote of this age, "We are all a little wild here with numberless projects of social reform." Although the reform movement attempted to address such diverse societal problems as slavery, mental illness, intemperance, and pacifism, many reformers believed that the road to secular paradise was through education. By 1820, it had become evident to those interested in education that the schools that had been established by the pre-war generation were not functioning effectively. The struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts. Abandoning a successful career as a lawyer, Man lobbied for a state board of education, and when the Massachusetts legislature created one in 1837, Horace man became its first secretary, and office he occupied for eleven years. His annual reports served as models for public school reforms throughout the nation, and, partly due to Mann's efforts, the first normal school, or teacher training school, was established in Lexington, Massachusetts, in 1839. Mann's arguments of the common school, or free publicly funded elementary schools, reflects both the concern for stability and order and the concern for social mobility-both of which were to be addressed through free public education. Mann spoke of school as a preparation for citizenship as well as the "balance wheel"-"the great equalizer of the conditions of men."

8.3. The Democratic-Liberal interpretation- Democratic-liberals believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progression evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all. Democratic-liberal historians suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the meritorious (which usually meant the privileged).

9. Chapter 5: The Philosophy of Education

9.1. Goal of Education- Existentialists believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively. They also believe that education should stress individuality; that it should include discussion of the non-rational as well as the rational world; and that the tensions of living in the world should be addressed.

9.1.1. Role of the Teacher- Teachers should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as that of their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can. Teachers must take risks; expose themselves to resistant students; and work constantly to enable their students to become, in Greene's (1978) words, "wide awake."

9.2. Methods of Instruction- Existentialists would abhor "methods" of instruction as they are currently taught in schools of education. They view learning as intensely personal. They believe that each child has a different learning style and it is up to the teacher to discover what works for each student.

9.2.1. Curriculum- Existentialists would choose curriculum heavily based toward the humanities. Literature especially has meaning for them since literature is able to evoke responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness. Art, music, and drama also encourage personal interaction. Existentialists believe in exposing students at early ages to problems as well as possibilities, and to the horrors as well as accomplishments humankind is capable of producing.

10. Chapter 4: The Sociology of Education

10.1. Functionalism-Functional sociologists begin with a picture of society that begins with interdependence of the social system; these researchers often examine how well the parts are integrated with each other. Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.

10.1.1. Conflict Theories- Conflict sociologists do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward. Interactionalism- Interactional theories about the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. 5 Effects of Schooling