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Linguistics by Mind Map: Linguistics

1. Descriptive

1.1. Language as it is actually used

2. Prescriptive

2.1. Language as it should be used

3. Applied

3.1. Second Language Acquisition

3.2. Computational

3.3. Forensic

4. Theoretical

4.1. Comparative

4.2. Sociolinguistics

4.3. Historical

5. Formal

5.1. Communication

6. Functional

6.1. Language

7. History

7.1. Antiquity

7.1.1. Babylonian Tradition First linguistic texts (2000 B.C.)

7.1.2. Hindu Tradition Sanskrit in religious texts (1000 B.C.) Panini (500 B.C.)

7.1.3. Greek Tradition Dionysius Thrax (100 B.C.) First surviving grammar of an European language: Techne Grammatike

7.1.4. Roman Tradition Varro (116-27 B.C.)

7.2. Middle Ages

7.2.1. Arabic and Hebrew Tradition Arabic 7th century A.D. Hebrew 9th century A.D.

7.2.2. Roger Bacon (1214-1294) Universal nature of Grammar

7.3. European Colonialism

7.3.1. European family of languages

7.4. Modern Linguistics

7.4.1. Historical Linguistics Rasmus Rask (1787-1832) Romantic Linguistics Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) Franz Bopp (1791-1867) August Schleicher (1821–1868) Stammbaumtheorie (family-tree theory) Neogrammarians Second half 19th century Goal Comparative Philology Idiolect Focus Protolanguage Scholars

7.4.2. Structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913) Langue/Parole Synchrony/Diachrony Paradigm/Syntagm Sign Language as a system Schools Prague British Copenhague American

7.4.3. Generativism Mid 20th century Noam Chomsky (1928) Transformational Grammar Goal to explain language structure through genetically-shared language universals Sentences Components Competence/Performance