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Histology by Mind Map: Histology
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vascular system


general characteristics



3 basic layers, tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia



general characteristics

3 basic types, Type I - continuous, Type II- fenestrated, Type III- discontinuous

lymphatic system

primary functions

lympathic vessels

lymphoid tissue, lymphocytes, diffuse, nodules

lymphatic organs, lymph node, spleen, thymus, tonsils

digestive system

accessory glands

salivary glands, parotid, submandibular, sublingual



four tissue types

epithelial tissue

membrane epithelia p. 7, simple squamous, barrier that is easily penetrated, endothelia in blood vessels, mesothelia in visceral organs, lung alveoli, simple cuboidal, slightly more substantial barrier than simple squamous but still allowing significant movement across the cells, kidney tubules, exocrine gland ducts, stratified squamous, thicker layer that resists physical abrasion, keratinized: epidermis, non-keratinized: oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal, pseudostratified, mostly columnar cells, some goblet cells, bronchi, trachea, stratified cuboidal (rare), exocrine glands, fetal epidermis, stratified columnar (rare), male prostatic urethra, transitional, mostly stratified squamous looking with cuboidal surface layer that stretches upon pressure, urinary bladder, ureter, parts of kidney

glandular epithelia

nervous tissue

central nervous system, general concepts, glial cells, astrocytes, star shaped cells that have end feet that extend to blood vessels and other axons, neuronal cell migration, removal of excess NT, physical support of CNS neurons, metabolic exchange between neurons and capillaries, microcyte, specialized CNS macrophage that scavenges damaged neurons, fibers, and other materials, oligodendrocyte, fairly common star shaped cell found in both gray and white matter that provides myelin coating, ependymal, cuboidal epithelial layer that lines the brain ventricles and central canal which produces and circulates CSF, sometimes ciliated, gray/white matter, gray matter contains all the cell bodies, local neurons, neuroglia, small blood vessels, white matter contains only myelinated axons, meninges, pia mater is the innermost, delicate layer of loose CT, arachnoid mater is the middle meninge layer, filled with fluid, some blood vessels, and some entangled CT, dura mater is the outermost meninge layer made of dense CT, divisions, spinal cord, gray matter, bilateral horns, efferent motor neurons, gray commisure and central canal, white matter, dorsal and ventral roots, ascending and descending tracts, ventral median fissure/dorsal sulcus, dorsal root ganglion, cerebrum, gray matter has 6 indistinct superficial layers, divided into 2 hemispheres, deep folds- gyri and sulci, cerebellum, gray matter 3 layers: molecular, purkinje, granular

peripheral nervous system, myelination by schwann cells, ganglia, sensory (afferent), autonomic (efferent), nerve structure, axons, fascicles, perineurium, 2nd degree bundles, endoneurium

general characteristics, neurons, axons, Nissl bodies - rER, perikaryon - cell body, dendrites, synapses, axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, axo-somatic, myoneural

connective tissue

composition, matrix, amorphous ground substance, GAG's, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin and dermatan sulphate, keratin sulphate, cells, adipose, cells with large lipid droplets, can be brown (heat storing) or white (energy storing), plasma, produces antibodies, derived from blood b-lymphocyte, fibroblasts, main producer of CT matrix, star shaped with almond shaped nucleus, blood, see below, bones, see below, mast, derived from basophils, mediates inflammatory response by loosening capillary walls, secretes histamine and heparine, macrophages, highly phagocytic cells, derived from blood monocytes, chondroblasts, main producers of cartilage matrix

classification, general CT, dense, regular, highly dense and fibrous, fibers are all running parallel to each other, tendons, irregular, tightly and chaotically arranged, still well vascularized and innervated, non dense, loose, lots of open space, can be highly cellular, highly vascularized and innervate, elastic, uncommon but important, found in arterial walls, adipose, mainly cellular, contains adipocyte cells, storage of lipids, shock absorption, reticular, reticular fibers form loose network, found in bone marrow and lymph nodes, special CT, cartilage, general characteristics, semi rigid matrix made of collagen and chondroitin, only cell is the chondroblast/chondrocyte, surrounded by dense CT "perichondrium", avascular and aneural, main types, hyaline, main type of cartilage, type 2 collagen, perichondrium, chondroblast/chondrocyte in lacunae, avascular / aneural, elastin, modified version of hyalin with added elastic fibers, found in external ear and epiglottis, fibrocartilage, lacks perichondrium, added type 1 collagen, found in intervertebral disks, bone, composition / structure, matrix, organic type 1 collagen, GAG's, inorganic hydroxyapatite crystals, cells, osteocyte cells / canaliculi, osteoclast, periosteum, sharpey's fibers, endosteum, haversian systems, classification, compact vs. spongy (macroscopic), lamellar vs. woven (microscopic), endochondral vs. intramembranous (origins), growth/remodeling, endochondrial ossification, cartilage converting into calcified cartilage into bone, epiphyseal plate, resting zone, proliferative zone, hypertrophic zone, calcification zone, ossification zone, remodeling, equilibrium between osteocytes and matrix, balance between the actions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, blood, plasma matrix, formed elements, erythrocytes (red blood cell), no nucleus or organelles, biconcave, 8um, 4-5 million per mm^3, durable (120 days), 2-3 million made per sec, many die in spleen, relative percent called "hematocrit", leukocytes (white blood cell), granulocytes, neutrophil (popular), most common leukocyte, neutral staining granules, multilobed nucleus, main defender cells, eosinophil (heartbreaker), uncommon (2-4%), red staining granules, breaks up antigen/antibody complexes, basophil (purple mast), very uncommon (0.5%), purple staining granules, turns into mast cells outside the bloodstream, agranulocytes, lymphocyte (cute eyeball), second most common leukocyte, small size, light blue cytoplasm, huge round nucleus, monocyte (huge macrophage), very uncommon, horseshoe shaped nucleus, turn into macrophages outside the bloodstream, larger cell (15um), platelets, fragments of cells derived from megakaryotes that are involved in blood vessel repair and secretion of clot-promoting agents


classification, skeletal, smooth, cardiac

structural hierarchy, muscle fasciculus, myofibers/myocytes, myofibrils, myofilaments, actin filament (thin), myosin filament (thick), sarcomere

respiratory system




urinary system


macro structures, cortex, medulla, medullary pyramids, area cribrosa, renal sinus, pelvis, calyces

blood supply, renal artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, intralobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole

micro structures, nephrons, types, juxtamedullary, cortical, components, glomerulus, mesangium, bowman's capsule, visceral capsule, podocytes, parietal capsule, glomerular space, urinary pole, vascular pole, juxtaglomerular apparatus, proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule

reproductive system


ovary, oogenesis


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