Fall 2008 Histology

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Histology by Mind Map: Histology

1. vascular system

1.1. veins

1.1.1. general characteristics

1.1.2. venules

1.2. arteries

1.2.1. 3 basic layers tunica intima tunica media tunica adventitia

1.2.2. arterioles

1.3. capillaries

1.3.1. general characteristics

1.3.2. 3 basic types Type I - continuous Type II- fenestrated Type III- discontinuous

1.4. lymphatic system

1.4.1. primary functions

1.4.2. lympathic vessels

1.4.3. lymphoid tissue lymphocytes diffuse nodules

1.4.4. lymphatic organs lymph node spleen thymus tonsils

2. digestive system

2.1. accessory glands

2.1.1. salivary glands parotid submandibular sublingual

2.1.2. pancreas

2.1.3. liver

3. four tissue types

3.1. epithelial tissue

3.1.1. membrane epithelia p. 7 simple squamous barrier that is easily penetrated endothelia in blood vessels mesothelia in visceral organs lung alveoli simple cuboidal slightly more substantial barrier than simple squamous but still allowing significant movement across the cells kidney tubules exocrine gland ducts stratified squamous thicker layer that resists physical abrasion keratinized: epidermis non-keratinized: oral cavity, esophagus, anal canal pseudostratified mostly columnar cells, some goblet cells bronchi, trachea stratified cuboidal (rare) exocrine glands, fetal epidermis stratified columnar (rare) male prostatic urethra transitional mostly stratified squamous looking with cuboidal surface layer that stretches upon pressure urinary bladder, ureter, parts of kidney

3.1.2. glandular epithelia

3.2. nervous tissue

3.2.1. central nervous system general concepts glial cells gray/white matter meninges divisions spinal cord cerebrum cerebellum

3.2.2. peripheral nervous system myelination by schwann cells ganglia sensory (afferent) autonomic (efferent) nerve structure axons fascicles perineurium 2nd degree bundles endoneurium

3.2.3. general characteristics neurons axons Nissl bodies - rER perikaryon - cell body dendrites synapses axo-dendritic axo-axonic axo-somatic myoneural

3.3. connective tissue

3.3.1. composition matrix amorphous ground substance GAG's cells adipose plasma fibroblasts blood bones mast macrophages chondroblasts

3.3.2. classification general CT dense non dense special CT cartilage bone blood

3.4. muscles

3.4.1. classification skeletal smooth cardiac

3.4.2. structural hierarchy muscle fasciculus myofibers/myocytes myofibrils myofilaments actin filament (thin) myosin filament (thick) sarcomere

4. respiratory system

4.1. tracheea

4.2. bronchus

4.3. bronchioles

5. urinary system

5.1. kidneys

5.1.1. macro structures cortex medulla medullary pyramids area cribrosa renal sinus pelvis calyces

5.1.2. blood supply renal artery interlobar artery arcuate artery interlobular artery intralobular artery afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole

5.1.3. micro structures nephrons types components

6. reproductive system

6.1. female

6.1.1. ovary oogenesis

6.2. male

7. My Geistesblitzes

7.1. immunology