Materials Science

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Materials Science by Mind Map: Materials Science

1. Engineering ceramics material

2. Fundamentals of material testing

3. Materials

3.1. Polymers

3.2. Metals

3.2.1. Iron Materials

3.2.2. Light metals

3.2.3. Heavy Metals

3.2.4. Metals Allotropic transformations Allotropy: Elements can be present in different crystal structures Polymorphism: compounds may exist in different crystal structures It's when a metal can change its structure (for example bcc->fcc) after a heat process

3.2.5. Mechanical Properties of Metals elastic and plastic behavior Tensile load Compresive load Shear strain fracture processes static strength and toughness thermal behavior Creep (Deformation)

4. Corrosion and Wear

5. Thermally Activated Processes

5.1. Phase transformations and precipitation processes

5.2. Concentration equalization by diffusion

5.2.1. Equation through diffusion Arrhenius Equation dV/dt = reaction rate dV = activated volume k = constant Q = activation energy R = universal gas constant T = absolute temperature

5.2.2. Volume Diffusion interstitial Diffusion vacancy diffusion

5.2.3. Diffusion Path

5.2.4. Elastic Band effect

5.3. Flick´s Law of diffusion

5.3.1. Growth And recrystallisation

5.3.2. Primary and secondary Recrystallisation

5.3.3. 1st Flick's Law

5.3.4. 2nd Flick's Law

5.4. Recrystallization of deformed structures

5.4.1. Rules for recrystallisation Minimal temperature Thermal recrystallization requires a minimum temperature for the necessary atomic mechanism to occur Critical deformation The prior deformation applied to the material must be adequate to provide nuclei and sufficient stored energy to drive their growth Initial grain size affects the critical temperature Deformation affects the final grain size

5.5. Sintering

5.6. Creep (deformation)

5.7. Thermo-chemical surface treatment

6. Phase equilibrium

7. Casting and Solidification

8. Heat treatment of Steel

9. Structure of Materials

9.1. Areas of Influence

9.1.1. Lifetime

9.1.2. Production

9.1.3. Costs

9.1.4. Construction

9.1.5. Quality

9.1.6. Functionality

9.2. Properties

9.2.1. Strength Crane

9.2.2. Strength specific weight Aircraft

9.2.3. Corrosion resistance Chemical plant

9.2.4. Thermal conductivity Heat exchangers

9.2.5. Electric conductivity Insulators Semiconductors

9.2.6. Ferromagnetism Magnets

9.2.7. Optical properties Optical fiber

9.3. Kind of Materials General Description

9.3.1. Metals Atomic structure Metallic bond Densest packing of atoms Crystalline structure Characteristics Good electrical conductors Good heat conductors Reflect light Chemically unstable Well deformable low temperature

9.3.2. Ceramics Atomic structure Ionic bond Some atomic bond Basic inorganic building blocks Crystalline and amorphous structures (glasses) Characteristics Bad electrical conductors Bad heat conductors Often transparent Not plastic Chemical resistant High melting temperatures

9.3.3. Polymers Atomic structure Atomic bonding long chain molecules Secondary valence forces between chains Amorphous structure, partially crystalline Characteristics Bad electrical conductors Brittle at low temperature Deformable at high temperature Lowe specific weight Chemical resistant Low temperature resistant

9.4. Phases

9.4.1. States of matter Plasma Electrons move independent of their nuclei Gas Atoms of molecules move freely Liquid Condensed state of matter Solid Crystal Glasses (amorphous solids)

9.5. Crystalline Structures

9.5.1. Kinds Simple Cubic (SC) Body-center cubic (BCC) Atoms touch along diagonals Face-center cubic (FCC) Atoms touch along surfaces Aluminium, Nickel, Copper, Silver, Gold, Lead... Hexagona close-packed (HCP) Same as FCC Magnesium, cobalt, Titanium, zinc

9.5.2. Description of Position within unit cell 1 2

9.5.3. Miller Indices 1. Find intercept points in axist eg. (3,4,6) 2. Reciprocals of them (1/3,1/4,1/6) 3. Lowest common denominator (4/12,3/12,2/12) 5.Miller Indices = (4,3,2) Examples 1 Distance between planes 1

9.5.4. Crystals behave anisotropically Anisotropy: is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.

9.6. Lattice Defects

9.6.1. Kinds Zero-Dimensional - Point Defects Vacancies Impurities One-Dimensional - Line Defects Edge dislocation Screw Dislocation Two-Dimensional Grain Boundary Twin Boundaries Stacking Fault Anti-phase boundary Three-Dimensional Pore Inclusions

9.6.2. Curing mechanisms Kinds 0D solute atoms = Solid solution hardening Dislocations = Hardening Grain boundaries = Fine grain hardening 3D particles = Precipitation hardening Crystal anisotropy = Texture hardening Structural anisotropy = Fiber reinforcement With the exception of fine grain hardening, INCREASE HARDNESS = DECREASE TOUGHNESS HERE PAGE 38 WK2