Causes of the Civil War

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Causes of the Civil War by Mind Map: Causes of the Civil War

1. Slavery

1.1. The main cause of the civil war was the debate over the future of slavery.

1.1.1. In the agrarian South, slaves grew and harvested cotton and other crops on huge plantations.

1.1.1.1. Leading up to the Civil War, there were almost 4 million slaves in the South.

1.1.1.2. The Southern States wanted political control over the institution of slavery, and to have power over the federal government to get rid of laws restricting slavery, and others that they didn’t support.

1.1.1.3. Without slaves , they would likely fail to survive economically

1.1.2. In the North, slavery had gradually been abolished, as cheap labor could be provided by Irish and German immigrants who grew potatoes.

1.1.2.1. The Northern states wanted to prevent the westward expansion of slavery

1.1.2.1.1. Republican Party was created to stop the westward expansion of slavery.

1.1.3. The South wanted slaves + The North didn't=War

2. State's Rights

2.1. The struggle between the government and individual states over political power

2.1.1. The South had an agrarian economy and needed slaves to make money

2.1.2. The North did not need slaves

2.1.3. The republican party was created to stop the westward expansion of slavery.

2.1.3.1. Abraham Lincoln was a republican elected in 1860.

2.1.3.1.1. Southerners feared that he would take away their slaves, and he hadn't gotten a single southern electoral vote.

3. Nullification

3.1. November of 1832

3.1.1. SC decides that tariffs are unconstitutional

3.1.1.1. prohibits the collection of import taxes on foreign goods, and warns that any military action will force secession by SC

3.1.1.1.1. President Jackson saw this as treason and threatened to invade if necessary.

4. Compromise of 1850 & The Georgia Platform

4.1. Compromise between North and South

4.1.1. Cause:After the Mex-Amer. war, the U.S. got a lot of new land.California was a territory,but wanted to become a state, At the time, there was an even number of slave states and free states, so nobody wanted to upset the "equilibrium", and the North and South argued over whether the new state should be free or not.

4.1.2. Henry Clay

4.1.2.1. h

4.1.2.2. Henry Clay was a U.S. Senator who was famous as a compromiser. He offered ideas for solutions to the issue of the new state.

4.1.3. The Compromise of 1850 was created when California wanted to become a state, but there was an even number of slave and free states.

4.1.3.1. The compromise was created to make the North and South both happy.

4.1.3.1.1. California became a state

4.1.3.1.2. Slave trade abolished in D.C.

4.1.3.1.3. A tougher fugitive Slave Act was created

4.1.3.1.4. Southwestern territories were organized

4.2. The Georgia Platform

4.2.1. When the country faced falling apart after the Compromise of 1850 was passed,Georgia adopted a proclamation called the Georgia Platform.

4.2.2. There was a fierce debate in senate over the issue. They ended up giving control of the issue to Stephen Douglas, a young senator from Illinois.

4.2.2.1. Stephen Douglas

4.2.2.2. Douglas decided that the only was to get enough support from both sides for the compromise was to break it up into different parts.

4.2.2.2.1. In fall of 1860, it was a series of five separate bills.

4.2.2.2.2. California became a state, but the South got a lot of stuff they wanted. ex.Fugitive slave act.

4.2.3. Very important in preventing national crisis.

4.2.3.1. Helped end protests from angry Georgians "fire eaters" after the Compromise of 1850.

4.2.3.2. Mississippi and Alabama also accepted the compromise, so the Civil War was delayed for a while.

4.2.4. Said that Georgia accepted the Compromise of 1850, but the North couldn't make any more attacks on slavery in the South.

5. Dred Scott

5.1. Held as a slave by a family that moved him to Alabama, then Missouri.He was then sold to another man who took him to Wisconsin territory.

5.1.1. He met Harriet Robinson, and they married and had two daughters.John Emerson, Scott's owner, now owned Robinson.

5.1.1.1. He took them all back to St.Louis Missouri, and in 1846, Dred and Harriet Scott filed for freedom.

5.1.1.1.1. They said that they had been slaves in a free territory, so they should then be free in slave states.

5.2. First filed for freedom in 1846 in Missouri.

5.3. Slave taken by his owner to the free state of Illinois.

5.4. When he returned to his home in Missouri, he sued for his freedom.

5.4.1. He first went to sue in 1847

5.4.1.1. It took ten years to get his case brought before Supreme Court.

5.5. Supreme court rejected his case, because he was property and not a citizen.

5.5.1. Court eventually ruled that all people of African ancestry, slaves and those who were free, could never become American citizens.

5.5.1.1. This meant that they could not go to Federal court or sue.

5.6. The Northerners got very mad, saw it a Southern states spreading slavery more.

5.6.1. This case sparked huge controversy, and ultimately led to the Civil War.

6. Abraham Lincoln's election in 1860

6.1. Abraham Lincoln was a republican and ran for office.

6.1.1. In 1860, he was elected without a single electoral vote from the Southern states.

6.1.1.1. The fears of the South (that they would lose their slaves) reached a high point.

6.1.1.1.1. They were worried that they had lost all their power in the government, so they seceded.

6.2. Republican Party was created to stop the westward expansion of slavery.

6.2.1. Lincoln was against slavery, and his platform was to stop it's spread, but in the beginning of the war, he didn't want to abolish it completely.

7. Debate over secession

7.1. Georgia was among the first seven states in the South to secede.Abraham Lincoln's election worried them, and they had secession debates, and seceded over slavery.

7.1.1. SC

7.1.2. GA

7.1.3. AL

7.1.4. MS

7.1.5. LA

7.1.6. TX

7.1.7. FL

7.1.8. Then four more did, after the Battle of Fort Sumter, the first battle of the Civil War.

7.1.8.1. VA

7.1.8.2. TN

7.1.8.3. NC

7.1.8.4. AR

7.1.8.5. They all considered themselves the Confederate States of America.

7.2. Georgia was debating over secession.

7.2.1. Alexander Stephens wrote a speech, and was vice president of the Confederacy.

7.2.1.1. He says...

7.2.1.1.1. Should we secede because of the election of 1860?

7.2.1.1.2. No, I don't think Georgia should break away.

7.2.1.1.3. No election is a good reason to secede.

7.2.1.1.4. Whatever happens, never let people say that Georgia is at fault.

7.2.1.1.5. He was outvoted, Georgia secedes, then he is chosen as Vice President of the Confederacy.

8. Georgia's Role in the Civil War

8.1. Battle of Ft. Sumter

8.1.1. After SC secedes, Union troops wouldn't leave Ft. Sumter

8.1.1.1. Confederates give Union two days to leave, then opened fire

8.1.1.1.1. Battle lasts 34 hours, and Union surrenders and retreats

8.2. Blockades

8.2.1. Blockades of Confederate ports to prevent imports an sale of cotton

8.2.1.1. CSA were importing food from Britain and exporting cotton in return

8.2.2. "Blockade Runners"

8.2.2.1. Sped past slower Union ships to escape the blockades

8.3. Emancipation Proclamation

8.3.1. Abe Lincoln signs after Antietam (single deadliest day in US history)

8.3.1.1. Frees Confederate slaves

8.3.1.1.1. changed purpose of the war

8.4. Battle of Chickamauga

8.4.1. Battle to decide who would control Chattanooga TN railroads

8.4.1.1. CSA victory, but they retreated

8.4.1.1.1. bloodiest battle in Georgia

8.5. Sherman's March to the Sea

8.5.1. after a few months, Sherman and his men took control of Atlanta

8.5.1.1. gave residents a few days to leave, then burned everything

8.5.1.1.1. "total war"