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Gulf Coast by Mind Map: Gulf Coast

1. drills and exercises as proxies for real emergencies Savoia

2. Hurricanes

2.1. Hurricane Harvey

2.1.1. About

2.1.1.1. Hurricane Harvey claimed 75 lives in Texas

2.1.1.2. Hurricane Harvey was a Category 4 storm that hit Texas on August 25, 2017. Amadeo

2.1.1.3. affected 13 million people from Texas through Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky Amadeo

2.1.1.4. Harvey made landfall three times in six days. At its peak on September 1, 2017, one-third of Houston was underwater. Two feet of rain fell in the first 24 hours. Flooding forced 39,000 people out of their homes and into shelters.

2.1.1.5. Timeline On August 25, 2017, Harvey hit Port Aransas and Port O'Connor near Corpus Christi with 130 m.p.h. winds. The category 4 hurricane left 250,000 people without power. On August 26, Harvey moved on to Houston. It remained there for four days. Two reservoirs overflowed. The highways became waterways. On August 29, Harvey made landfall for a third time as it hit the coastal cities of Port Arthur and Beaumont Texas on the border of Louisiana. It dumped 26 inches of rain in 24 hours. It flooded Port Arthur, a city of 55,000 people. Water entered one-third of the city's building, including the shelter. On August 31, an Arkema chemical plant in Crosby, Texas, ignited. The chemicals required refrigeration to stay inert. When the storm disabled the cooling equipment, temperatures rose and the chemicals ignited. On September 1, Harvey dropped 10 inches of rain on Nashville, Tennessee.

2.1.2. Disaster

2.1.2.1. Hurricane Harvey damaged 203,000 homes, of which 12,700 were destroyed. Amadeo

2.1.2.2. 738,000 people who registered for assistance with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The agency has paid $378 million to them Amadeo

2.1.3. It caused $125 billion in damage according to the National Hurricane Center. That’s more than any other natural disaster in U.S history except Hurricane Katrina. Texas Governor Greg Abbott needed more than $125 billion in federal relief Amadeo

2.1.4. Economic

2.1.4.1. The Houston metro area is the nation’s fourth-largest city with 6.6 million residents. If it were a country, it would be the world’s 23rd largest economy, larger than Poland or Sweden. Amadeo

2.1.4.2. Gasoline production is still down. U.S. average gas prices rose from $2.35 a gallon before Harvey hit to $2.49 a gallon on August 31, 2017. Harvey affected the Northeast, since it relies on pipelines from the Gulf for its gas. To maintain supply, the Department of Energy released 500,000 barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Harvey forced 25 percent of oil and gas production to shut down in the region. That affects 5 percent of nationwide output. Amadeo

2.1.5. Helath

2.1.5.1. at least 88 people died from the storm

2.1.5.2. There were 37,000 people in shelters in Texas and 2,000 in Louisiana. Almost 7,000 people were in the George R. Brown Convention Center, where 1,700 received medical treatment. FEMA moved 14,900 in temporary housing. As of the first day of September, 8,000 families had moved into 9,000 hotel rooms. Amadeo

2.1.5.3. acute injuries from debris and rescue

2.1.5.4. gastrointestinal illnesses NOE

2.1.5.5. Mental health NOE

2.1.5.6. exacerbation of chronic illnesses NOE

2.1.6. Enviornment

2.1.6.1. Environmental Concerns as Wastewater, Drinking Water Systems Compromised flooded 800 wastewater treatment facilities and 13 Superfund sites. That spread sewage and toxic chemicals into the flooded areas. Amadeo

2.1.6.2. As of September 14, at least 3,900 homes were without power. There were 77 boil-water notices in effect, 19 water systems were down and 31 wastewater systems remained offline. Amadeo

2.1.6.3. In the Gulf area, 1 million vehicles were ruined beyond repair,

2.1.6.4. Houston’s school district said 75 of its 275 schools were closed due to flood damage.

2.1.7. Recommendations

2.1.7.1. Improving timely emergency communication SAVOIA

2.1.7.2. create and maintain sustainable response systems SAVOIA

2.1.7.3. more evacuation routes WU

2.1.7.4. better engineered structures FINK

2.1.7.5. well practiced cooperation FINK

2.1.7.6. Rapid deployment of rescue teams BRODIE

3. Flooding

3.1. Memorial Day Floods

3.1.1. Disaster

3.1.1.1. Following an already wet month, 6 to 8 inches of rain fell in the Hill Country beginning on Saturday, May 23. Southern Blanco County saw 10 to 13 inches. With the ground saturated, the Blanco River rose 5 feet every 15 minutes from 10:45 p.m. to 11:45 pm (statesman, 2017)

3.1.1.2. The flood destroyed or severely damaged 2,100 homes in Hays County, wiped out or damaged all but one river crossing in the county and caused millions of dollars of damage. As many as 12,000 trees were damaged or destroyed between Blanco and San Marcos Statesman

3.1.1.3. Fourteen people were killed in Central Texas, including 12 people along the Blanco River

3.1.1.4. A “wall of water” along the Blanco River measured at 42 feet in Wimberley before it wiped out the water-level gauge. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated it peaked at 44.9 feet

3.1.1.5. 30 people were confirmed missing in Hays County as of Tuesday. (Humphrey)

3.1.1.6. Thirty-seven Texas counties are currently under a state of disaster as declared by Gov. Greg Abbott. Twenty-four counties were added to the list as a result of the most recent round of storms including Hays CountyHumphreys

3.1.2. Economic

3.1.2.1. $7 million for the region which includes Blanco, Hays, Guadalupe and Caldwell counties, Glassford

3.1.2.2. Electric substations were damaged, affecting electricity and related utilities across the region, he said. Infrastructure damage was primarily composed of drainage outfall, which destroyed roadways and residential homes. Glassford

3.1.3. Health

3.1.3.1. respiratory issues from mold formation

3.1.3.2. mosquito borne illnesses Steenhuysen

3.1.3.3. viral and bacterial infection ecoli and salmonella, cholera, skin rashes, Steenhuysen

3.1.4. Enviornment

3.1.4.1. The flooding rivers caused 10 wastewater facilities to release water that was either partially treated, disinfected or untreated into the floodwater during the storms. Humphrey

3.1.4.2. soil erosion, water quality and the impact floods have on the rivers’ natural ecosystem Glass ford

3.1.4.3. water quality degrade as human and animal waste discharges into the river.” Glassford

3.1.4.4. high-density urban area, oil and metal often flush into the river from construction sites. Glassford

3.1.5. Recommendations

3.1.5.1. Channel modifications to flow downstream detention basin to reduce overbank flooding

3.1.5.2. urban plan development being less dense

3.1.5.3. extensive analysis be done to evaluate possible flood hazards and risks

3.1.5.4. raising slab heights and taking into account home built before flood regulationsin FEMA 1970 Flood insurance

3.1.5.5. the development of a non structural alert system that could be rapidly implemented in order to provide lead time during impending flood events (Bass et al., 2017)

3.1.5.6. Governor Abbot approved $6.8 million to fund more flood gauges and floodplain management plans across the state. Three new flood gauges have been placed on the Blanco River, and Wimberley has been testing an emergency siren. There was already a phone warning system in place, but residents say the warnings are too frequent and vague to indicate when real danger is present. But as with tornados, flash floods and the damage they inflict are difficult to predict. In addition to these precautions FEMA redrew the floodplain boundaries and recommended residents move their homes higher up the banks.

3.1.5.7. The safety measures include notification systems, drainage installation, construction of walls and dams and adherence to proper building codes. (Glassford)

3.1.5.8. USACE, Coast 2050, $14 billion over 30 years to reclaim the coast, 2003 Bush administration shut the plan down Stokstad,

3.1.5.9. reinforce shorelines, sediment delivery projects, a healthier coastline could lessen storm damage (restoring wetlands)

3.1.5.10. regional planning for flood resistant communities, low density Brody, leapfrogging pattern, mixture of land usages

3.1.6. About

3.1.6.1. May 23-25 2015, central Texas

3.1.6.2. The US Army Corp of Engineers manages the waterways

3.1.6.3. Happens every Memorial weekend

3.1.6.4. Historic flash and river flooding occurred on Saturday, May 23rd and into Sunday, May 24th across portions of South-Central Texas. The worst rivers impacted by far were the Blanco and San Marcos Rivers that ran through Wimberley and San Marcos, TX that resulted in severe impacts to life and property. Additional flash flooding occurred on Memorial Day, May 25th, affecting large areas of Williamson, Travis, Bastrop, and Caldwell counties. (sullivan)

3.1.6.5. floods, thunderstorms and sporadic tornadoes Humphreys

4. Oil Spills

4.1. Deepwater Horizon

4.1.1. Enviornment

4.1.1.1. Human generated ecological disaster

4.1.1.2. coastal contaminination from pertroleum products

4.1.1.3. severe ecological damage

4.1.1.4. beach contamination

4.1.2. Health

4.1.2.1. Mental health issues

4.1.2.1.1. Depression

4.1.2.1.2. avoidance

4.1.2.1.3. PTSD

4.1.2.1.4. Anxiety

4.1.2.1.5. Family conflict

4.1.2.2. Substance abuse

4.1.2.2.1. marijuana

4.1.2.2.2. alcohol

4.1.2.3. uncertain future health effects

4.1.2.3.1. cancer

4.1.2.3.2. neurological disorders

4.1.2.3.3. genetic polymorphisms

4.1.2.3.4. abnormalities in hematologic, hepatic, respiratory, renal, and neurological functions (D'Andrea & Reddy, 2013, p.966).

4.1.2.4. Psychological stressors

4.1.2.4.1. see carnage of dead animals

4.1.2.4.2. visible harm to ecosystem shoreline

4.1.2.4.3. clean up crews prolonged exsposure caused distress 170,000 Reddy

4.1.3. Economic

4.1.3.1. disruption of Gulf Coast tourism and industries

4.1.3.1.1. fishing industry

4.1.3.1.2. loss in fish and shellfish stocks

4.1.3.1.3. stigmatization of seafood products

4.1.3.1.4. closed hotels and restaurants

4.1.3.1.5. closed beaches

4.1.3.1.6. real estate

4.1.3.2. media coverage shed a bad light on the area

4.1.3.3. decreased income

4.1.4. Disaster

4.1.4.1. Most pronounced concern was the "multiple exposure"effect...elevates risks and consequences

4.1.4.1.1. Coastal effect to La, FL, MS and Al

4.1.5. Recommendation

4.1.5.1. Contingency plans that take in consideration uncontrolled spillage from an offshore well, rather than a vessel or onshore (Schultz et al., 2015,p.69)

4.1.6. About

4.1.6.1. Largest volume marine oil spill in hx

4.1.6.2. In 2010, one of BP's drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico spewed 4.9 million barrels of pertroleum coveering 68,000 square miles of sea surface over 87 days (Shultz et al., 2015).

4.1.6.3. April 10th 2010, 11 died, 17 injured, burned for 36 hours, 50 miles off of the La coast

4.1.6.4. Controlled the wellhead cap on July 15 2010

4.1.6.5. Preevntable

4.1.6.6. President Obama

4.1.6.7. wellhead blowout

4.1.6.8. HUrricane Katrina just happened, people were still recovering from that emergency

5. Pics