Motivation

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Motivation by Mind Map: Motivation

1. Intrinsic

1.1. Intrinsic motivators include:

1.1.1. Fascination with the subject

1.1.2. Relevance to life and the world

1.1.3. A sense of mastering subject

1.1.4. subject "calls" to person

1.2. Building on student curiosity

1.2.1. Relate content objectives to student experiences

1.2.2. Identify interests that can be incorporated into lessons and discussions

1.2.3. Use humor, personal experience and anecdotes

1.2.4. Use "original source material with interesting content"

1.2.5. "Create surprise and curiosity"

2. Extrinsic

2.1. Extrinsic motivators include:

2.1.1. Parental expectations

2.1.2. Expectations of others of importance

2.1.3. Potential of earning money in the future

2.1.4. grades

2.1.5. Rewards

3. Common Causes of Demotivation

3.1. Lack of positive relationships

3.2. Drug use

3.3. Learned helplessness

3.4. Brain Anomalies

3.5. Perception of Threats

3.6. Awareness of disrespect towards one's culture or ethnicity

3.7. Perception that assignments or tasks are too difficult

4. Goals

4.1. Mastery

4.1.1. Improving and learning are the goals

4.2. Performance

4.2.1. Looking good to others is the goal

4.2.1.1. Performance goals are not always harmful

4.3. Work-avoidance

4.3.1. Not working too hard, or working on easy tasks is the goal

4.4. Social

4.4.1. "Nonacademic activities such as atheletics, dating, and "hanging out" compete with schoolwork."

4.5. Goal Setting in the Classroom

4.5.1. Feedback

4.5.1.1. Students need to know where they are and where they are going.

4.5.1.2. "Feedback emphasizing progress is the most effective."

4.5.2. Goal framing

4.5.2.1. Explain or frame assignments as "helping students' intrinsic goals"

4.5.3. Goal acceptance

4.5.3.1. "Commitment matters"

4.5.3.2. Students should be involved in setting their own goals

4.5.4. Lessons for Teachers

4.5.4.1. Goals should be

4.5.4.1.1. Clear

4.5.4.1.2. Specific

4.5.4.1.3. Reasonably difficult

4.5.4.1.4. Meaningful

4.5.4.1.5. Connected to student's "intrinsic interests"

4.5.4.2. Teachers should not focus goals on:

4.5.4.2.1. Student Performance

4.5.4.2.2. High grades

4.5.4.2.3. Competition

5. Beliefs

5.1. Epistemological beliefs - beliefs about learning

5.1.1. Do individual students believe they can learn?

5.1.1.1. Their answer affects the "goals they set and the learning strategies" they use.

5.1.1.2. Teachers can help students understand that they can learn

5.1.1.2.1. Model critical thinking

5.1.1.2.2. connect new learning to prior knowledge

5.1.1.2.3. "Demonstrate multiple solutions to problems"

5.2. Beliefs about ability

5.2.1. Entity view

5.2.1.1. Ability to learn is fixed

5.2.1.2. Students with this view set performance goals

5.2.1.3. Teachers with this view are quick to judge and slower to modify judgements of students

5.2.2. Incremental view

5.2.2.1. Ability is "unstable and controllable"

5.2.2.2. Students with this view focus on the " the process of problem solving and applying good strategies"

5.2.2.3. Teachers with this view set mastery goals for students

5.3. Beliefs about causes and control

5.3.1. Attribution theory

5.3.1.1. An "individual's explanations, justifications, and excuses influence motivation

5.3.1.2. Causes for success or failure

5.3.1.2.1. Location, internal or external

5.3.1.2.2. Stability

5.3.1.2.3. Controllability - does the person have control of the cause

5.3.1.2.4. Teacher impacts

5.4. Self-Worth

5.4.1. Learned helplessness

5.4.1.1. When students believe that they have no control over the events and outcomes in their lives

5.4.2. Mastery-oriented

5.4.2.1. Value achievement-focus on mastery goals

5.4.3. Failure-avoiding

5.4.3.1. Fixed view of ability-focus on performance goals

5.4.4. Failure accepting

5.4.4.1. Convinced they have little ability and cannot change

5.4.5. Encouraging self-worth .

5.4.5.1. Teach the idea that ability is improvable

5.4.5.2. "Teach directly about the difference between learning goals and performance goals"

5.4.5.3. Create a classroom atmosphere that is learning centered and that failure is "diagnostic"

5.4.5.4. Encourage students to seek and give help

6. Needs

6.1. Maslow's Hierarchy

6.1.1. Deficiency needs

6.1.1.1. Survival

6.1.1.2. Safety

6.1.1.3. Belonging

6.1.1.4. Self-esteem

6.1.2. Being needs

6.1.2.1. Cognitive needs

6.1.2.2. Aesthetic needs

6.2. Self-Determiniation

6.2.1. Competence

6.2.2. Autonomy

6.2.3. Relatedness

6.2.4. Guidelines for supporting self-determination

6.2.4.1. Allow and encourage student choice

6.2.4.2. Help students plan to attain "self-selected goals"

6.2.4.3. "Hold students accountable fro the consequences of their choices"

6.2.4.4. Explain reasons for "limits, rules, and constraints"

6.2.4.5. "Use non-controlling, positive feedback"

7. Strategies for Motivating Students

7.1. TARGET

7.1.1. T- Task value

7.1.1.1. Importance

7.1.1.2. Interest

7.1.1.3. Utility

7.1.1.4. Cost

7.1.2. A- Autonomy

7.1.2.1. Provide students with choices

7.1.2.1.1. Unlimited choices

7.1.2.1.2. Bounded choices

7.1.3. R- Recognition

7.1.3.1. Improving

7.1.3.2. Attempting difficult tasks

7.1.3.3. Persistance

7.1.3.4. Creativity

7.1.3.5. Do not only recognize students for performing better than others

7.1.4. G- Grouping practices

7.1.4.1. Goal structure

7.1.4.1.1. Coooperative

7.1.4.1.2. Competitive

7.1.4.1.3. Individualistic

7.1.4.2. Vary means of grouping students

7.1.5. E- Evaluation Procedures

7.1.5.1. Emphasis on "competitive evaluation and grading = Performance goals

7.1.5.2. Emphasize the need to understand the material = mastery goals

7.1.6. T- Time in class

7.1.6.1. Make "time for engaged and persistent learning"

7.2. Strategies that support motivation

7.2.1. Messages of accountability

7.2.2. communicate the importance of the work

7.2.3. Clear goals and directions

7.2.4. Connections across the curriculum

7.2.5. Opportunities to learn about and practice dramatic arts

7.2.6. Attributions to effort

7.2.7. Encourage risk taking

7.2.8. Use games and play

7.2.9. Home-school connections

7.2.10. Multiple representations

7.2.11. Positive classroom management and praise

7.2.12. Stimulate creative thought

7.2.13. Student choice

7.2.14. Communicate to students that they can accomplish difficult tasks

7.2.15. Communicate caring

7.3. Strategies that DO NOT support motivation

7.3.1. Attributions to intellect and not effort

7.3.2. Emphasizing competition and not colaboration

7.3.3. No scaffolding

7.3.4. Ineffective and negative feedback

7.3.5. Lack of connections

7.3.6. Easy tasks

7.3.7. Negative class atmosphere

7.3.8. Punitive classroom management

7.3.9. Work that is too difficult

7.3.10. Slow pacing

7.3.11. Emphasis on finishing and not learning

7.3.12. Sparse classroom

7.3.13. Poor planning

7.3.14. Public punishment

8. Approaches

8.1. Behavioral

8.2. Humanistic

8.3. Cognitive

8.4. Social Cognitive

8.5. Sociocultural Conceptions

8.5.1. Students are motivated by learning events that "connect with students' funds of knowledge and prior experiences"

9. Emotion

9.1. Achievement

9.1.1. Mastery -oriented

9.1.1.1. Enjoy learning

9.1.1.2. Hope

9.1.1.3. Pride

9.1.2. Performance oriented

9.1.2.1. Pride

9.1.3. Performance avoidance

9.1.3.1. fear of:

9.1.3.1.1. Failing

9.1.3.1.2. looking stupid

9.1.4. Increasing positive emotions

9.1.4.1. Provide for student choice

9.1.4.2. "Matching challenge to student's skill level"

9.1.4.3. "Show the value of the activities"

9.2. Arousal

9.2.1. Too little - no student action

9.2.2. Just right - student performance increases

9.2.3. Too much - anxiety sets in

9.3. Anxiety

9.3.1. Cause and effect of school failure

9.3.2. Effects learners in three phases

9.3.2.1. Preparation

9.3.2.1.1. Anxious learners have trouble:

9.3.2.2. Performance

9.3.2.2.1. Anxiety "blocks retrieval" of learning

9.3.2.3. Reflection

9.3.2.3.1. Reinforces feelings that student is "incapable of succeeding"

9.3.2.3.2. Reinforces feelings of having little control

9.3.2.3.3. Sets ineffective future goals

9.3.3. Helping learners cope

9.3.3.1. "Use competition carefully"

9.3.3.2. Avoid having anxious learners perform for large groups

9.3.3.3. Make instructions clear

9.3.3.4. Remove some pressure from testing

9.3.3.5. Have alternatives to written tests

9.3.3.6. "Teach students self-regulation strategies"

10. References

10.1. Jensen, E. (2005) Teaching with the Brain in Mind (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD

10.2. Woolfolk, A. (2017) Educational Psychology (13th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson

10.3. Motivating students. (n.d.). Retrieved from Motivating Students