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Australia by Mind Map: Australia
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Australia

History

Explorer

Penal Colony

Aborigines

Culture

Art

Media

Cuisine

Sport

Demography

Language

Language Main article: Australian English Nearly three quarters of Australians live in metropolitan cities and coastal areas. The beach is an integral part of the Australian identity.[220] The Barossa Valley is a wine-producingregion in South Australia. Fewer than 15 per cent of Australians live in rural areas. Although Australia has no official language, English is so entrenched that it has become the de facto national language.[2] Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon. Grammar and spelling are similar to that of British English with some notable exceptions.[221] According to the 2006 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 79 per cent of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Italian (1.6 per cent), Greek (1.3 per cent) and Cantonese (1.2 per cent);[222] a considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. A 2010–2011 study by the Australia Early Development Index found that the most common language spoken by children after English was Arabic, followed by Vietnamese, Greek, Chinese, and Hindi.[223] Between 200 and 300 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact, of which only about 70 have survived. Many of these are exclusively spoken by older people; only 18 Indigenous languages are still spoken by all age groups.[224] At the time of the 2006 Census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12 per cent of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home.[225] Australia has a sign language known asAuslan, which is the main language of about 5,500 deaf people.[226]

Religion

Religion Main article: Religion in Australia Australia has no state religion. In the 2006 census, 64 per cent of Australians listed themselves as Christian, including 26 per cent as Roman Catholic and 19 per cent as Anglican. About 19 per cent of the population cited "No religion" (which includeshumanism, atheism, agnosticism and rationalism), which was the fastest-growing group from 2001 to 2006, and a further 12 per cent did not answer (the question is optional) or did not give a response adequate for interpretation. The largest non-Christian religion in Australia is Buddhism (2.1 per cent), followed by Islam (1.7 per cent), Hinduism (0.8 per cent) and Judaism (0.5 per cent). Overall, fewer than 6 per cent of Australians identify with non-Christian religions.[227] Weekly attendance at church services in 2004 was about 1.5 million: about 7.5 per cent of the population.[228] An international survey, made by the private, not-for profit German think-tank, the Bertelsmann Foundation, found that "Australia is one of the least religious nations in the western world, coming in 17th out of 21 [countries] surveyed" and that "Nearly three out of four Australians say they are either not at all religious or that religion does not play a central role in their lives.".[229] A survey of 1,718 Australians by the Christian Research Association at the end of 2009 suggested that the numbers of people attending religious services per month in Australia has dropped from 23 per cent in 1993 to 16 per cent in 2009, and while 60 per cent of 15 to 29-year-old respondents in 1993 identified with Christian denominations, 33 per cent did in 2009.

Education

Health

Health Life expectancy in Australia in 2006 was 78.7 years for males and 83.5 years for females.[235] Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world,[236] while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease.[237] Australia has one of the highest proportions of overweight citizens amongst developed nations.[238] Main article: Health care in Australia Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8 per cent of GDP.[239] Australia introduced universal health care in 1975.[240] Known as Medicare it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 1.5 per cent.[241] The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (reducing the costs of medicines) and general practice.[240]

Politics

Government

Politics

Monarchy

Geography and Climate

Environment

States and Territories

New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia—and two major mainland territories—the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).