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e-skills by Mind Map: e-skills

1. National Educational Technology Standards

1.1. Creativity and Innovation. Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.

1.2. Communication and Collaboration. Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively.

1.3. Research and Information Fluency. Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

1.4. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making: Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.

1.5. Digital Citizenship. Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior.

2. Key Skills Qualification

2.1. Key skills are the skills that are commonly needed for success in a range of activities in education and training, work and life in general. The key skills are a range of essential generic skills that underpin success in education, employment, lifelong learning and personal development. They are practical, applied skills relevant both to young people and to adult learners. There are currently six key skills qualifications, each available at Levels 1 to 4 of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF).

2.1.1. Wider Key Skills: Improving Own Learning and Performance; Working with Others y Problem Solving.

2.1.2. Hard Key Skills: Skills of Comm., Information Technology & Application of Number.

3. skills

3.1. CEDEFOP (2004)

3.1.1. Skill: “The knowledge and experience needed to perform a specific task or job”.

3.1.2. Competence: "Ability to apply knowledge, know-how and skills in a habitual or changing situation”.

3.1.3. Basic Skills: “Skills and competences needed to function in contemporary society (e.g. listening, speaking, reading, writing and mathematics)”.

3.2. LEICHT (2006)

3.2.1. Skills are capabilities and expertise in a particular occupation or activity. Most occupations use a mix of different types of skills. The most common measures of skills are qualifications. On the job training in the workplace is a vital source of skills development and career progression.

3.2.2. Basic skills, such as literacy and numeracy, and generic skills, such as team working and communication, are applicable in most jobs.

3.2.3. Specific skills tend to be less transferable between occupations.

3.3. Burgelman (2000)

3.3.1. A surprisingly wide variety of new job roles is emerging (see under) , the quantitative significance of which is as yet unclear. If past patterns of professionalisation are repeated, it is likely that these roles will consolidate into a number of relatively well-delineated occupations. However, even so, many of the jobs created will require hybrid skills, which are not yet well provided by existing bodies and institutions.

3.4. CEDEFOP (2008)

3.4.1. Germany. Competence of action-taking or Handlungskompetenz is the principal aim of VET in the dual system: to enable the student to take autonomous and responsible action within the workplace. It is a multi-dimensional concept comprising occupational competence (Fachkompetenz), social competence (Sozialkompetenz), procedural competence (Methoden -kompetenz) and personal competence (Selbstkompetenz).

3.4.2. Netherlands. Competence is ‘the ability to successfully meet complex demands in a particular context through the mobilisation of psychosocial prerequisites’. The Dutch system distinguishes between four types of competences: occupational, career, civic and learning competences.

3.4.3. France. The French approach draws on knowledge (savoir), skills (savoir-faire) and social competences (savoir-être). Individual competences relate to each other and are difficult to disassociate from the overall occupational profile.

3.4.4. England. In the English model, competence relates not to the overall capacity of the individual but to the individual’s performance of prescribed tasks or skills to a defined standard. This is epitomised in the National vocational qualifications (NVQ) system which combines ‘units of competence’ based on occupational standards into NVQ awards.

3.4.5. Austria. Learning outcomes are part of new educational standards, known as Bildungsstandards. The Ministry defines Bildungs standards as the essential competences, which pupils at a certain stage of their education should have acquired.

3.4.6. The Czech Republic. the Education Act (2004) defines the basic aims and principles of education, with the education system based on a system of framework educational programmes defining compulsory content, scope and conditions.

3.4.7. France. The Code de l’Éducation (Education Code, 2005) is the key education policy document defining learning outcomes in France. The Code defines the objective of compulsory education as being to ensure that every child is able to acquire a fundamental core (or ‘canon’) of knowledge and skills (known as the socle commun).

3.4.8. Italy. Legislation in 2003 introduced a new concept of ‘personalised programmes of study’ or ‘personalised study plans’ for all phases of education (pre-primary education; first cycle education, i.e. primary and lower secondary school; and for second school cycle, i.e. upper secondary school).

3.4.9. Portugal. Current reforms mean that the whole philosophy of curricular development is focused on a curriculum based on competences. These comprise knowledge, capacities, attitudes and values to be developed by pupils throughout the education process.

3.4.10. Scotland (UK). Curriculum guidelines for local authorities and schools cover the structure, content and assessment of the curriculum in primary schools and in the first two years of secondary education.

3.4.11. Sweden The education system is geared towards the idea of ‘steering through goals’. These are decided centrally level with decentralised authorities that have responsibility for education (such as the municipalities) fulfilling these goals.

3.5. Bloom (1956)

3.5.1. Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)

3.5.2. Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)

3.5.3. Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)

3.6. European Qualifications Framework

3.6.1. 'Skills' are the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems. In the EQF, skills are described as cognitive (use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments). Skills: Described as cognitive (use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) and practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments).

3.7. European Commission (2008)

3.7.1. Basic skills: Required to carry out simple tasks.

3.7.2. A range of cognitive and practical skills: Required to accomplish tasks and solve problems by selecting and applying basic methods, tools, materials and information. A range of cognitive and practical skills required to generate solutions to specific problems in a field of work or study. A comprehensive range of cognitive and practical skills required to develop creative solutions to abstract problems.

3.7.3. Advanced skills, demonstrating mastery and innovation, required to solve complex and unpredictable problems in a specialised field of work or study.

3.7.4. Specialised problem-solving skills required in research and/or innovation to develop new knowledge and procedures and to integrate knowledge from different fields.

3.7.5. The most advanced and specialised skills and techniques, including synthesis and evaluation, required to solve critical problems in research and/or innovation and to extend and redefine existing knowledge or professional practice.

3.8. Basic Skills (Skills for Life)

3.8.1. Basic Skills are called Adult Literacies in Scotland (and cover literacy, numeracy, decision making and problem solving in contextualised learning). A term used in the UK to describe the ability to read, write and speak in English and use mathematics at a level necessary to function and progress at work and in society in general.

3.9. European e-Competence Framework (2008)

3.9.1. Skill is defined as “ability to carry out managerial or technical tasks”. Managerial and technical skills are the components of competences and specify some core abilities which form a competence.

3.9.2. Competence is defined as “a demonstrated ability to apply knowledge, skills and attitudes for achieving observable results”. Consequently, the related e-Competence descriptions embed and integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes.

3.9.3. Knowledge represents the “set of know-what” (e.g. programming languages, design tools...) and can be described by operational descriptions.

4. 21st Century Skills

4.1. Creativity and innovation.

4.2. Critical thinking and problem solving.

4.3. Communication.

4.4. Collaboration.

4.5. Information literacy.

4.6. Media literacy.

4.7. Information and Communication Technologies literacy (ICT literacy).

4.8. Flexibility and adaptability.

4.9. Initiative and self direction.

4.10. Social and cross-cultural skills.

4.11. Productivity and accountability.

4.12. Leadership and responsibility.

5. Key competences LLL. (European Parliament, 2006)

5.1. Communication in the mother tongue: which is the ability to express and interpret concepts, thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in both oral and written form (listening, speaking, reading and writing), and to interact linguistically in an appropriate and creative way in a full range of societal and cultural contexts;

5.2. Communication in foreign languages: which involves, in addition to the main skill dimensions of communication in the mother tongue, mediation and intercultural understanding. The level of proficiency depends on several factors and the capacity for listening, speaking, reading and writing;

5.3. Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology: the ability to develop and apply mathematical thinking in order to solve a range of problems in everyday situations, with the emphasis being placed on process, activity and knowledge.

5.4. Digital competence: The confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT);

5.5. Learning to learn: related to learning, the ability to pursue and organise one's own learning, either individually or in groups, in accordance with one's own needs, and awareness of methods and opportunities;

5.6. Social and civic competences: Refers to personal, interpersonal and intercultural competence and all forms of behaviour that equip individuals to participate in an effective and constructive way in social and working life. Competence and particularly knowledge of social and political concepts and structures (democracy, justice, equality, citizenship and civil rights) equips individuals to engage in active and democratic participation;

5.7. Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship: the ability to turn ideas into action. It involves creativity, innovation and risk-taking, as well as the ability to plan and manage projects in order to achieve objectives. The individual is aware of the context of their work and is able to seize opportunities which arise.

5.8. Cultural awareness and expression: which involves appreciation of the importance of the creative expression of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media (music, performing arts, literature, and the visual arts).

6. Lisbon Summit (2007)

6.1. Participation in pre-school education

6.2. Special needs education

6.3. Early school leavers

6.4. Literacy in reading, mathematics and science

6.5. ICT skills

6.6. Civic skills

6.7. Learning to learn skills

6.8. Upper secondary completion rates of young people

6.9. Professional development of teachers and trainers

6.10. Higher education graduates

6.11. Cross-national mobility of students in higher education

6.12. Participation of adults in lifelong learning

6.13. Adult skills

6.14. Educational attainment of the population

6.15. Investment in education and training

7. Lika

7.1. - Technical competence: Digital technology competence means that the teacher can decide which digital tools are suitable for use in an educational context. The teacher has the technical competence to ensure continuous updating of these tools. - Didactic competence: Digital didactic competence is to be able to determine when, why and how ICT is used as educational and methodical support of learning. The teacher should be able to choose work and digital tools that fit the content and examination best. Here, the educational relevance of various digital tools to be added. - Theoretical competence: Digital theoretical competence means that the teacher has knowledge of ICT educational theories and methods of learning, and can apply them in practice in the teaching professional activities. The teacher should also be aware of current research in the field of ICT. - Competence: Dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, abilities, skills, assessment and approach. This combination is shaped in learning activities, which can be divided into topic-specific and generic skills. - Digital competence: It needs to be developed based on both the substantive educational perspective and a more general perspective.

8. Iinsight (2005)

8.1. The terms “ICT competence” or “Digital competence” were taken as reference terms for different types of knowledge, skills and competencies that are needed for teachers to work with ICT in educational settings. These can be the competencies that are sought to be developed by teachers by the use of ICT in education (administration, preparation and to reach pedagogical purpose), the mastering of ICT tools and knowledge about ICT and its wider societal impact. Within each of these sections a variety of knowledge, skills and attitudes are covered such as “to use”, “to understand”, “to manage “, “to evaluate”, which points to different competency levels and stages of effective and qualitative integration of ICT in the learning process. The application of ICT to fulfil wider goals or aspirations is seen as being “ICT literate” or “competent”. A set of various skills (e.g. technical to higher order thinking skills) are necessary to become “ICT literate” or “ICT competent”.

8.1.1. 1. Technical knowledge; (ICT as a tool)

8.1.2. 2. The use of ICT for several purposes, (e.g. pedagogical, organisational, administrative) and in different (learning) environments (classroom, home, school);

8.1.3. 3. Information handling;

8.1.4. 4. Security and ethics.

9. Martin, 2006

9.1. Digital Literacy is the awareness, attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, analyse and synthesize digital resources, construct new knowledge, create media expressions, and communicate with others, in the context of specific life situations, in order to enable constructive social action; and to reflect upon this process.

9.1.1. Level I. Digital Competence: At the foundation of the system is digital competence. This will range across a wide range of topics, and will encompass also a differentiation of skill levels. Individuals or groups will draw upon digital competence as is appropriate to their life situation, and return to it as often as new challenges presented by the life situation change. Components of digital competence may be mastered at levels of expertise which will vary from basic skills to more demanding evaluative or analytical competence.

9.1.2. Level II. Digital Usage In moving from digital competence to digital literacy, however, we take on board the cruciality of situational embedding. Digital literacy must involve the successful usage of digital competence within life situations, the appropriate application of digital competence within specific professional or domain contexts, giving rise to a corpus of digital usages specific to an individual, group or organisation. In generating digital usages, users draw upon relevant digital competences and elements specific to the profession, domain or other life-context. Each user brings to this exercise his/her own history and personal/professional development.

9.1.3. Level III. Digital Transformation The ultimate stage is that of digital transformation, and is achieved when the digital usages which have been developed enable innovation and creativity, and stimulate significant change within the professional or knowledge domain or the personal and social context. This change could happen at the individual level, or at that of the group or organisation. A requirement for transformation is critical reflection on the part of the individual or group

10. Peña, 2009

10.1. Technological Literacy: the skills to interact with hardware and software

10.2. Informational Literacy: the competences to deal with information, normally by means of ICTs (applying Technological Literacy). We could draw here two stages: a more instrumental one, related on how to get (relevant) information, and a more strategic one related to how to manage that information (or knowledge, if we speak of personal knowledge management)

10.3. Media Literacy: skills and competences to deal with several media, make them interact and integrate them in a single output. I believe we could also draw a lower level, multimedia, where interaction would be more mechanical, and a higher one, crossmedia, where interaction and integration respond not to technical possibilities but to a strategical design, building an ecosystem of different media (and not a simple multimedia output)

10.4. Digital Presence: Is centered in the person. These are the digital skills to monitor and establish a digital identity, and the skills to actively define it and use it for networking or interacting with other people digitally

10.5. e-Awareness: the most strategical (even philosophical) stage is the one related with being aware on how the world and our position — as a person, group, firm, institution — varies because of digital technologies

11. ICT Skills Monitoring Group, 2002

11.1. Digital literacy relates to the ability to grasp and use information as presented on a computer installation (audio, video, text, etc.). Being digitally literate implies being able to search and retrieve information, to navigate and communicate on-line, to participate in digital, and virtual communities. It is perceived as a key element in the battle to overcome social exclusion and divisions in European society.

12. DigEuLit

12.1. statement

12.1.1. To state clearly the problem to be solved or task to be achieved and the actions likely to be required

12.2. identification

12.2.1. To identify the digital resources required to solve a problem or achieve successful completion of a task

12.3. accession

12.3.1. To locate and obtain the required digital resources

12.4. evaluation

12.4.1. To assess the objectivity, accuracy and reliability of digital resources and their relevance to the problem or task

12.5. interpretation

12.5.1. To understand the meaning conveyed by a digital resource

12.6. organisation

12.6.1. To organise and set out digital resources in a way that will enable the solution of the problem or successful achievement of the task

12.7. integration

12.7.1. To bring digital resources together in combinations relevant to the problem or task

12.8. analysis

12.8.1. To examine digital resources using concepts and models which will enable solution of the problem or successful achievement of the task

12.9. synthesis

12.9.1. To recombine digital resources in new ways which will enable solution of the problem or successful achievement of the task

12.10. creation

12.10.1. To create new knowledge objects, units of information, media products or other digital outputs which will contribute to task achievement or problem solution

12.11. communication

12.11.1. To interact with relevant others whilst dealing with the problem or task

12.12. dissemination

12.12.1. To present the solutions or outputs to relevant others

12.13. reflection

12.13.1. To consider the success of the problem-solving or task-achievement process, and to reflect upon one’s own development as a digitally literate person

13. OCED (2002; 2004)

13.1. 1) basic skills (using generic tools like word processors, internet browsers and email clients). competent users of generic tools (e.g. Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint) needed for the information society, e-government and working life. Here too, ICTs are a tool, not the main job.

13.2. 2) advanced skills (using advanced and often sector-specific tools for the administration and manipulation of data and digital media) competent users of advanced, and often sector-specific, software tools. ICTs are not the main job but a tool.

13.3. 3) specialist skills (developing, maintaining and operating ICT systems) who have the ability to develop, operate and maintain ICT systems. ICTs constitute the main part of their job – they develop and put in place the ICT tools for others.

14. [European e-Skills Forum, 2004].

14.1. ICT practitioner skills: the capabilities required for researching, developing and designing, managing, the producing, consulting, marketing and selling, the integrating, installing and administrating, the maintaining, supporting and service of ICT systems.

14.2. e-Business skills: the capabilities needed to exploit opportunities provided by ICT, notably the Internet, to ensure more efficient and effective performance of different types of organisations, to explore possibilities for new ways of conducting business and organisational processes, and to establish new businesses.

14.3. ICT user skills: the capabilities required for effective application of ICT systems and devices by the individual. ICT users apply systems as tools in support of their own work, which is, in most cases, not ICT. User skills cover the utilisation of common generic software tools and the use of specialised tools supporting business functions within industries other than the ICT industry;

15. CEPIS Skills

15.1. “e-Skills”: encompasses a wide range of capabilities (knowledge, skills and competences) and issues with an eskills dimension span over a number of economic and social dimensions”. Stucky et al. developed an IT Competence Maturity Model and categorised eskills according to five degrees: (1) IT awareness (basic knowledge), (2) IT literacy (knowledge to operate a PC), (3) expert user (special knowledge/expertise with application software, helping other users), (4) professional entry level (professional knowledge) and (5) professional level IT skills (advanced professional knowledge). While the categorisation is satisfactory for the model, it does not provide the required granularity of classification for this study task. Thus, the classification is advanced by distinguishing three main categories as proposed by Stucky et al., European e-Skills Forum.

15.1.1. ICT practitioner skills comprise the capabilities required for specifying, designing, developing, installing, operating, supporting, maintaining, managing, evaluating and researching ICT systems, for the benefit of others.

15.1.2. ICT end-user skills include the capabilities required for an effective use by the individual user of ICT systems and devices, for whatever purpose. ICT end-users make use of the systems as tools in support of their own work, which is in many cases not ICT. End-user skills cover basic digital- (or ICT-) literacy, the utilisation of common (“generic”) software tools in an office environment, and the use of specialised tools supporting major business functions within a large number of “user sectors”.

15.1.3. e-business skills: This category of skills summarises the capabilities needed to exploit the strategic opportunities provided by ICT (in particular, the Internet) for specific industry or societal sectors. e-Business skills are strategic and innovation-management, not technology management, skills - which are part of ICT Practitioner skills. e-Business skills contain elements of both ICT practitioner and end-user skills, but in addition they contain a significant element of generic (non-sector specific) non-ICT skills.

16. EU Commission, Education Council (2006)

16.1. "Combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context. Key competences are those which all individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment".

16.1.1. Communication in the mother tongue.

16.1.2. Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology.

16.1.3. Learning to learn

16.1.4. Digital competence. Digital competence involves the confident and critical use of Information Society Technology (IST) for work, leisure and communication. It is underpinned by basic skills in ICT: the use of computers to retrieve, assess, store, produce, present and exchange information, and to communicate and participate in collaborative networks via the Internet. Essential knowledge, skills and attitudes related to this competence: /// Digital competence requires a sound understanding and knowledge of the nature, role and opportunities of IST in everyday contexts: in personal and social life as well as at work. This includes main computer applications such as word processing, spreadsheets, databases, information storage and management, and an understanding of the opportunities and potential risks of the Internet and communication via electronic media (e-mail, network tools) for work, leisure, information sharing and collaborative networking, learning and research. Individuals should also understand how IST can support creativity and innovation, and be aware of issues around the validity and reliability of information available and of the legal and ethical principles involved in the interactive use of IST. Skills needed include the ability to search, collect and process information and use it in a critical and systematic way, assessing relevance and distinguishing the real from the virtual while recognising the links. /// Individuals should have skills to use tools to produce, present and understand complex information and the ability to access, search and use internet-based services. Individuals should also be able use IST to support critical thinking, creativity, and innovation. /// Use of IST requires a critical and reflective attitude towards available information and a responsible use of the interactive media. An interest in engaging in communities and networks for cultural, social and/or professional purposes also supports this competence.

16.1.5. Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship.

16.1.6. Cultural awareness and expression.

16.1.7. Communication in foreign languages.

16.1.8. Social and civic competences.

17. (IPTS, 2007)

17.1. Digital competence: Play a key role in a knowledge-based society.

17.1.1. Description: Skills to search, evaluate, manage and use information and digital resources are essential for working and learning in the digital environment. These include skills to organize knowledge according to one's personal preferences and the means to build systems to follow and obtain updates on the relevant information as needed.

17.1.2. In the networked knowledge-based society, interacting with people is also an important asset and skills for benefiting from it are increasingly important. All these skills become part of the necessary digital competence to be acquired.

17.1.3. Digital competences are re-shaped by the emergence and use of new social computing tools, which give rise to new skills related to collaboration, sharing, openness, reflection, identity formation and also to challenges such as quality of information, trust, liability, privacy and security.

18. (UNESCO, 2008)

18.1. (ETS, 2001)

18.1.1. Define: Using ICT tools to identify and appropriately represent and identify an information need.

18.1.2. Access: Knowing about and knowing how to collect and/or retrieve information in digital environments, also the ability to develop a search strategy to locate information within a database.

18.1.3. Manage: Organizing information into existing classification schemes.

18.1.4. Evaluate: Reflecting to make judgments about the quality, relevance, usefulness, efficiency, authority, bias, and timeliness of the information.

18.1.5. Integrate: Interpreting, summarizing, drawing conclusions, comparing and contrasting information from multiple digital sources.

18.1.6. Create: Generating new information and knowledge by adapting, applying, designing, inventing, or representing information in ICT environments.

18.1.7. Communicate: Conveying information and knowledge to various individuals and/or groups.

18.2. (EU DEC)

18.2.1. ICT competency: The “confident and critical use of electronic media for work, leisure and communication. These competencies are related to logical and critical thinking, to high-level information management skills, and to well-developed communication skills.”

19. (e-Inclusion, 2008)

19.1. Digital literacy is the skills required to achieve digital competence, the confident and critical use of ICT for work, leisure, learning and communication. Digital Competence was included as one of the eight essential skills, in the Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong learning.

20. Gilster, 1997

20.1. Digital literacy is the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. The concepts of digital literacy goes beyond simply being able to read; it has always ment the ability yo read with meaning, and to understand. It is fundamental and act of cognition. Is the cognition of what you see on the computer screen when you use the networked medium...This skills of digitally literate are becoming as necessary as driver´s license....Acquiring digital literacy for Internet use involves mastering a set of core competencies. The most essential of theses is the ability to make informed judgement about what you find online, unlike conventional media, much of the Net is unfiltered by editors and open to the contributions for all.

20.2. Digital literacy is the ability to understand information and —more important —to evaluate and integrate information in multiple formats that the computer can deliver. Being able to evaluate and interpret information is critical. When I talk to teachers and librarians, I emphasize that you can't understand information you find on the Internet without evaluating its sources and placing it in context.

21. Ontario Assocciation for Media Literacy (1989)

21.1. Media literacy is concerned with developing an informed and critical understanding of the nature of the mass media, the techniques used by them, and the impact of those techniques. It is education that aims to increase students’ understanding and enjoyment of how the media work, how they produce meaning, how they are organized, and how they construct reality. Media literacy also aims to provide students with the ability to create media products.

22. (Ofcom, 2005)

22.1. “The ability to access, understand and create communications in a variety of contexts”

23. Microsoft

23.1. "Basic computer concepts and skills so that individuals can use computer technology in everyday life to develop new social and economic opportunities for themselves, their families, and their communities".

24. (American Library Association, 1989)

24.1. "Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand."

25. (Commission of the European Communities, 2007)

25.1. Media literacy is generally defined as the ability to access the media, to understand and to critically evaluate different aspects of the media and media contents and to create communications in a variety of contexts.