Social & Cultural Environments

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Social & Cultural Environments by Mind Map: Social & Cultural Environments

1. Attitudes, Beliefs & Values

1.1. Attitude - Way a person expresses or applies their beliefs and values. Expressed through words or behaviors

1.2. Belief - Internal feeling that an individual holds to be true even though it is unproven and irrational

1.3. Value - Measure of the worth or importance of a person attaches to something.

1.4. Subculture - Smaller groups of people with own shared attitudes, beliefs and values. ie, vegeterian

2. Religion

2.1. Major religions in the world : Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Jewish

2.2. Shows the important source of beliefs, attitudes and values

2.3. Religious practices, holidays and history impact global marketing activities

3. Aesthetics & Colours

3.1. Aesthetic

3.1.1. Visual - set of principles concerned with nature and appreciation of beauty. Embodied in color or shape of a product, label or package

3.1.2. Styles - Represent good taste. Various degrees of complexity, such as, perceived differently around the world

3.2. Colour

3.2.1. Red - associated with blood, wine-making, activity, heat and vibrancy in many countries. But poorly received in African.

3.2.2. Blue - Since pigment was rare, ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Mayans associated with royalty and divinity. Half of interviewees state blue is the favorite color

3.2.3. White - identified with purity and cleanliness in the West, with death in parts of Asia

3.2.4. Gray - inexpensive in Japan and China, but high quality and expensive in the US

4. Language & Communication

4.1. Semiotics - study of signs and meanings. It also include both spoken and unspoken language.

4.1.1. Unspoken - gestures, touching, body language Middle East, Westerners should not show the soles of shoes or documents with the left hand Japan, bowing has many nuances Asians - place greater nonverbal communication than Westerners

4.1.2. Spoken - Syntax, Semantics, Phonology, Morphology syntax - rules of sentence formation semantics - system of meaning phonology - system of sound patterns morphology - word of formation

4.2. Pronunciation problems

4.2.1. Colgate - in Spanish means "go hang yourself"

4.2.2. IKEA - in Thailand had sexual words

4.2.3. Whirlpool - spent large sums on advertising only to find out that French, Italian and German could not pronounce the brand

4.2.4. Diesel - pronounced same in all languages

5. Hofstede's Cultural Typology

5.1. Individualism vs Collectivism

5.1.1. Individualism : people look after their own and family interests. Example : US, Canada, Australia

5.1.2. Collectivism : people expect the group to look after and protect them. Example : Mexico, Thailand

5.2. Power distance

5.2.1. High power distance - accept wide differences in power, great deal of respect for those in authority. Example : Mexico, Singapore, Malaysia

5.2.2. Low power distance - plays down inequalities. employees are not afraid to approach. Example : US, Sweeden

5.3. Uncertainty vs Avoidance

5.3.1. High uncertainty avoidance - threatened by ambiguity and experience high levels of anxiety. Example : Italy, Mexico, France

5.3.2. Low uncertainty avoidance - comfortable with risks. Example, Canada, US, Singapore

5.4. Achievement vs Nuturing

5.4.1. Achievement - Acquire money and competition prevail. Example : US, Japan, Mexico

5.4.2. Nurturing - Values such as relationship and care for others. Example : France, Sweeden

5.5. Long-term orientation

5.5.1. Long term objective - look to the future and value thrift and persistence. Example, China, Taiwan, Japan

5.5.2. Short term objective - people value tradition and past. Example, Germany, Australia, US

6. Society, Culture & Global Consumer Culture

6.1. Culture

6.1.1. ways of living, built by a human group of human beings, that are transmitted from one generation to another

6.1.2. Has both conscious and unconscious values, ideas, attitudes and symbols

6.1.3. Acted out in social institution. ie, in family, being rude is unacceptable. As such, in Western, calling mother in law by name but in Asia, we use "mother"

6.1.4. Reinforce the cultural norms

6.1.5. Divided two; physical (clothing and tools) and nonphysical (religion, attitudes, beliefs and values)

6.2. Social Institution

6.2.1. Divided into Family Education Religion Government Business

6.2.2. These institutions function to reinforce cultural norms

6.3. Global Consumer

6.3.1. Person who share meaningful sets of consumption-related symbols. ie : coffee culture, fast-food culture and soccer culture

6.3.2. How the culture been brought? Internet Satellite TV

7. Music

7.1. Music is universal

7.2. Styles are associated with countries or regions : bossa nova& Argentina, salsa & Cuba, reggae & Jamaica

7.3. Understand what style is appropriate in advertising; varies by culture and government regulations

8. Dietary Preferences

8.1. Behind the supply of food available to any given individual, hides a mix of biological, psychological, social, cultural and historical influences.

8.2. Asia - rice, Italian - pizza, Japanese - sushi

9. Marketing Impact & Culture

9.1. opportunities to standardize elements of a marketing program

9.2. Increasing travel and improved communications

9.3. High context and Low context cultures

9.3.1. High context - implicit. emphasis on background, basic values, societal status. Less emphasis on legal paperwork. Focus on personal reputation. Example : Saudia Arabia, Japan

9.3.2. Low context - Explicit and specific. Words carry all information. Reliance on legal paperwork. Focus on non-personal documentation of credibility. Example : Switzerland, US, Germany

10. Self- Reference Criterion and Perception

10.1. how to reduce cultural myopia :

10.1.1. - Define the problem in terms of home country cultural traits

10.1.2. - Define the problem in terms of host-country cultural traits; make no value judgement

10.1.3. - Isolate the SRC influence and examine it

10.1.4. - Redefine the problem without the SRC influence and solve for the host country situation

10.2. The Adoption Process

10.2.1. Individual passes from the time of first knowledge of an innovation to the time of product adoption and purchase.

10.2.2. - Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption.

10.2.3. characteristics of innovations : relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility and communicability.

10.3. environmental sensitivity

10.3.1. extent to which products must be dapted to the culture-specific needs of differect national markets

10.3.2. independent of social class and income, culture is a significant influence on consumption and purchasing