Histology

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Histology by Mind Map: Histology

1. TRAN PHAM

2. Epithelial Tissue

2.1. Stratified

2.1.1. Squamous Epithelium

2.1.1.1. location

2.1.1.1.1. Nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina; keratinized variety forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane.

2.1.1.2. structure

2.1.1.2.1. Multiple layers, basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers

2.1.1.3. function

2.1.1.3.1. Provide physical protection against abrasion, pathogens, and chemical attacks.

2.1.2. Cuboidal epithelium

2.1.2.1. location

2.1.2.1.1. Largest ducts of sweat glands, mammary glands, and salivary glands.

2.1.2.2. structure

2.1.2.2.1. Multiple layers, generally two layers of cube-like cells.

2.1.2.3. function

2.1.2.3.1. Protection, secretion, absorption

2.1.3. Columnar epithelium

2.1.3.1. location

2.1.3.1.1. Rare in the body; small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands.

2.1.3.2. structure

2.1.3.2.1. Multiple layers, basal cells usually cuboidal; superficial cells elongated and columnar.

2.1.3.3. function

2.1.3.3.1. Protection; secretion

2.1.4. Transitional epithelium

2.1.4.1. location

2.1.4.1.1. Lines the ureters, urinary bladder, and part of the urethra; renal pelvis.

2.1.4.2. structure

2.1.4.2.1. Resembles both stratified Squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar: surface cells dome shaped or squamous-like, depending on degree of organ stretch.

2.1.4.3. function

2.1.4.3.1. Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine

2.2. Simple

2.2.1. Squamous Epithelium

2.2.1.1. location

2.2.1.1.1. kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs; lining of heart; blood vessels; lining of ventral body cavity

2.2.1.2. structure

2.2.1.2.1. Single layer, disc-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm, thin, flat

2.2.1.3. function

2.2.1.3.1. Reduces friction; controls vessel permeability, performs absorption and secretion.

2.2.2. Cuboidal epithelium

2.2.2.1. location

2.2.2.1.1. Glands; ducts; portions of kidney tubules, thyroid gland, ovary surface

2.2.2.2. structure

2.2.2.2.1. Single layer, cube-like cells with large, spherical central nuclei.

2.2.2.3. function

2.2.2.3.1. Limited protection, secretion, absorption

2.2.3. Columnar epithelium

2.2.3.1. location

2.2.3.1.1. Nonciliated type lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to anal canal), gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.

2.2.3.2. structure

2.2.3.2.1. Single layer, tall cells with round to oval nuclei; some cells bear cilia; layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands (goblet cells).

2.2.3.3. function

2.2.3.3.1. Protection, secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action, absorption.

2.2.4. Pseudostratified columnar

2.2.4.1. location

2.2.4.1.1. Lining of nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; nonciliated type in male's sperm-carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.

2.2.4.2. structure

2.2.4.2.1. Single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia.

2.2.4.3. function

2.2.4.3.1. Protection, secretion, particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.

3. Nervous Tissue

3.1. location

3.1.1. Brain, spinal cord, and nerves

3.2. structure

3.2.1. Neurons are branching cells; cell processes that may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing cell body; also contributing to nervous tissue are nonirritable supporting cells (not illustrated)

3.3. function

3.3.1. Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors (muscles and glands) which control their activity.

4. Muscle Tissue

4.1. Skeletal muscle

4.1.1. location

4.1.1.1. In skeletal muscles attached to bones or occasionally to skin.

4.1.2. structure

4.1.2.1. Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells; obvious striations

4.1.3. function

4.1.3.1. Voluntary movement; locomotion; manipulation of the environment; facial expression; voluntary control

4.2. Cardiac muscle

4.2.1. location

4.2.1.1. The walls of the heart.

4.2.2. structure

4.2.2.1. Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions (intercalated discs)

4.2.3. function

4.2.3.1. As it contracts, it propels blood into the circulation; involuntary control.

4.3. Smooth muscle

4.3.1. location

4.3.1.1. Mostly in the walls of hollow organs.

4.3.2. structure

4.3.2.1. Spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei; no striations; cells arranged closely to form sheets.

4.3.3. function

4.3.3.1. Propels substances or objects (foodstuffs, urine, a baby) along internal passageways; involuntary control.

5. Connective Tissue

5.1. Loose connective tissue

5.1.1. Areolar

5.1.1.1. location

5.1.1.1.1. Widely distributed under epithelia of body, e.g., forms lamina propria of mucous membranes; packages organs; surrounds capillaries.

5.1.1.2. structure

5.1.1.2.1. Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types; cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells.

5.1.1.3. function

5.1.1.3.1. Wraps and cushions organs; its macrophages phagocytize bacteria; plays important role in inflammation; holds and conveys tissue fluid.

5.1.2. Adipose

5.1.2.1. location

5.1.2.1.1. Deep to the skin, especially at sides, buttocks, breasts; padding around eyeballs and kidneys.

5.1.2.2. structure

5.1.2.2.1. Matrix as in areolar, but very sparse: closely packed adipocytes, or fat cells, have nucleus pushed to the side by large fat droplet

5.1.2.3. function

5.1.2.3.1. Provides padding and cushions shocks; insulates (reduces heat loss); stores energy reserves

5.1.3. Reticular

5.1.3.1. location

5.1.3.1.1. Liver, Kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

5.1.3.2. structure

5.1.3.2.1. Network of reticular fibers in a typical loose ground substance; reticular cells lie on the network

5.1.3.3. function

5.1.3.3.1. Fibers form a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports other cell types, including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages.

5.2. Dense connective tissue

5.2.1. Dense regular

5.2.1.1. location

5.2.1.1.1. Between skeletal muscles and skeletal (tendons and aponeuroses); between bones or stabilizing positions of internal organs(ligaments); covering skeletal muscles; deep fasciae.

5.2.1.2. structure

5.2.1.2.1. Primarily parallel collagen fibers a few elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast.

5.2.1.3. function

5.2.1.3.1. Provides firm attachment; conducts pull of muscles; reduces friction between muscles; stabilizes relative positions of bones

5.2.2. Dense irregular

5.2.2.1. location

5.2.2.1.1. Fibrous capsules of organs and of joints; dermis of the skin; submucosa of digestive tract.

5.2.2.2. structure

5.2.2.2.1. Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers; some elastic fibers; major cell type is the fibroblast.

5.2.2.3. function

5.2.2.3.1. Able to withstand tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength; helps prevent overexpansion of organs such as the urinary bladder

5.2.3. Elastic tissue

5.2.3.1. location

5.2.3.1.1. Walls of large arteries; within certain ligaments associated with the vertebral column; within the walls of the bronchial tubes.

5.2.3.2. structure

5.2.3.2.1. Dense regular connective tissue containing a high proportion of elastic fibers.

5.2.3.3. function

5.2.3.3.1. Allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration.

5.3. Cartilage

5.3.1. Fibrocartilage

5.3.1.1. location

5.3.1.1.1. Intervertebral discs; pubic symphysis; discs of knee joint.

5.3.1.2. strucure

5.3.1.2.1. Matrix similar to but less firm than that in hyaline cartilage; thick collagen fibers predominate.

5.3.1.3. function

5.3.1.3.1. Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.

5.3.2. Elastic cartilage

5.3.2.1. location

5.3.2.1.1. Supports the external ear (pinna); epiglottis.

5.3.2.2. structure

5.3.2.2.1. Similar to hyaline cartilage, but more elastic fibers in matrix

5.3.2.3. function

5.3.2.3.1. Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility.

5.3.3. Hyaline

5.3.3.1. location

5.3.3.1.1. Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx

5.3.3.2. strucure

5.3.3.2.1. Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature (chondrocytes) lie in lacunae.

5.3.3.3. function

5.3.3.3.1. Supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress.

5.4. Bone/ Osseous tissue

5.4.1. location

5.4.1.1. Bone

5.4.2. structure

5.4.2.1. Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae. Very well vascularized.

5.4.3. function

5.4.3.1. Bone supports and protects (by enclosing); provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium and other minerals and fat; marrow inside bones is the site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)

5.5. Blood

5.5.1. location

5.5.1.1. Heart and blood vessels

5.5.2. structure

5.5.2.1. Pale pink discs (erythrocytes), no nuclei, platelets, leukocytes are larger.

5.5.3. function

5.5.3.1. Transport nutrients gases, waste, chemicals, heat, immunity, clotting, growth factor.