Discrimination against Non-Heterosexual Individuals

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Discrimination against Non-Heterosexual Individuals by Mind Map: Discrimination against Non-Heterosexual Individuals

1. Types of Sexual Orientation

1.1. Heterosexual

1.1.1. A person who is physically, emotionally and/ or romantically attracted to individuals of a gender other than their own

1.2. Homosexual

1.2.1. A person who is physically (sexually), romantically and/ or emotionally attracted to individuals of the same gender with which their identity

1.3. Bisexual

1.3.1. A person who is attracted to people of both their own and another gender. It most commonly refers to people who are attracted to both men and women

1.4. Asexual

1.4.1. A person who does not experience sexual attraction or has no desire to engage in sexual activity

1.5. ("Overview of Sexual Orientations | SexInfo Online", 2017)

2. Types of Sexual Orientation Discrimination

2.1. Direct Discrimination

2.1.1. When someone treats you worse than another person due to your sexual orientation Ex) An insurance company insists that a man applying for life insurance takes an HIV test as his application form shows he is a gay

2.2. Indirect Discrimination

2.2.1. When an organization has a particular policy that applies to everyone but which gives disadvantages to you because of your sexual orientation Ex) A club has a policy of offering free membership to all husband and wives of its members but not to civil partners

2.3. Harassament

2.3.1. When someone makes you feel humiliated and offended Ex) Colleagues keep greeting a male by the feminine version of his name although he asked them to use his proper name

2.4. Victimisation

2.4.1. When you treated badly because you have made a complaint of sexual orientation discrimination under the Equality Act Ex) You make a complaint of sex discrimination against your employer. As a result, you are denied a promotion

2.5. ("Equality and Discrimination: Understand the basics", 2017)

3. Sexual Orientation Discrimination CASE/ EVIDENCE

3.1. The maximum loss from discrimination is 4.6% for gays but less than 0.01% for straights

3.1.1. (Berg & Lien, n.d.)

3.2. The employer asserted that the plaintiff (a transgender) was fired for sleeping on the job and noted that other employees had been fired for the same offense. However, before her termination of work, her supervisor had said that her transgender status made him nervous and would negatively impact the business and coworkers.

3.2.1. ("Examples of Court Decisions Holding LGBT-Related Discrimination Actionable Under Title VII", n.d.)

3.3. LGB&T people continue to face discrimination, harassment, disadvantage, and inequality in the UK in a number of different policy areas, especially in Health, Education, and Employment.

3.3.1. LGB&T people suffer much higher levels of bullying and harassment at work than do heterosexual people: TWICE as high for gay and bisexual men or 4 TIMES as high for LGB people

3.3.2. 46% of transgender people expected to be discriminated against mental health esrvces

3.3.3. (Hudson-Sharp & Metcalf, 2016)

4. Ways to Reduce Discrimination

4.1. Creating an organization that takes positive action to encourage or develop non-heterosexual people to participate in a role or activity in public

4.1.1. Allows non-heterosexuals to gain self-esteem and to speak up for their same rights as heterosexuals

4.2. Developing treatment (or medical policy) that permits people to be treated differently based on their sexual orientation which provides by organizations

4.2.1. Non-heterosexual people are recognized their difference by public or heterosexuals

4.3. Preventative training for staff, teachers, and students on bullying, harassment, intimidation, and discrimination. Plus, education on different types of sexual orientations

4.3.1. Everyone gets opportunity to learn how to respect people of different sexual orientation


5.1. Berg, N., & Lien, D. Measuring the Effect of Sexual Orientation on Income: Evidence of Discrimination?. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from https://www.otago.ac.nz/economics/otago113959.pdf Discrimination because of sexual orientation. Citizensadvice.org.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/law-and-courts/discrimination/discrimination-because-of-sex-or-sexual-orientation/discrimination-because-of-sexual-orientation/#h-direct-discrimination-because-of-sexual-orientation Equality and Discrimination: Understand the basics. (2017). Acas.org.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/1/0/Equality_discrim_understand_basics_Nov.pdf Examples of Court Decisions Holding LGBT-Related Discrimination Actionable Under Title VII. Eeoc.gov. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/wysk/lgbt_examples_decisions.cfm Friedman, M. (2014). The Psychological Impact LGBT Discrimination. psychologytoday.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/brick-brick/201402/the-psychological-impact-lgbt-discrimination Hudson-Sharp, N., & Metcalf, H. (2016). Inequality among lesbian, gay bisexual and transgender groups in the UK: a review of evidence. National Institute of Economic and Social Research. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/539682/160719_REPORT_LGBT_evidence_review_NIESR_FINALPDF.pdf Hunt, J. (2011). Five Ways We Can End Discrimination and Harassment Against Gay and Transgender Youth in Schools. Generation Progress. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from http://genprogress.org/voices/2011/03/01/16401/five-ways-we-can-end-discrimination-and-harassment-against-gay-and-tra/ Overview of Sexual Orientations | SexInfo Online. (2017). Soc.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/article/overview-sexual-orientations Sexual Orientation Discrimination | Acas advice and guidance | Acas. Acas.org.uk. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=1824 Sexual orientation discrimination | Equality and Human Rights Commission. Equalityhumanrights.com. Retrieved 30 April 2018, from https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/advice-and-guidance/sexual-orientation-discrimination

6. Effects of the Components of Health

6.1. Physical Health

6.1.1. attempting suicidal or hurting themself by cutting their skin - dissastisfied about their body. Involves the overuse of drugs to reduce depression or stress. These drugs including pain killers or sleeping pills, (and sometimes illegal drugs like cocaine, meth..), can weaken the entire organ system- or cause a drug overdose.

6.1.2. Depression from discrimination will lead to unhealthy habits like sleeping late (caused by stress) or skipping meals (caused by the idea of wanting to fit in, so they try to be as slim as possible) - or as muscular as possible, by excessive hours at the gym, crossing the line of the body's tolerance.

6.1.3. LGBT adults who are rejected by their family are eight times more likely to have attempted suicide compared to a healthy heterosexual individual.

6.2. Mental Health

6.2.1. Receive high levels of psychological distress - caused by either fear of coming out, or fear of expressing trueself in public.

6.2.2. Being overly concerned of not being accepted or exposed to the community can really damage their mental health. As they become overly sensitive about every matter happening around them. The anxiety builds up everyday, causing irrational behaviours. quick anger (short temper), and etc.

6.2.3. Discrimination can cause paranoia due to the "excessive amount of fear" one has to experience everyday.

6.2.4. 30 % of the LGBT children miss school because they feel unsafe being at school. School should be an educating and learning environment, if it's not safe, then the kid wouldn't be feeling safe anywhere else they go.

6.3. Social Health

6.3.1. Some countries do not approve same sex marriage nor adoption rights. The status of a non-heterosexual is below average and merely the bottom of the hiearchy.

6.3.2. LGBT kids are treated badly at school. It's hard for them to blend in as well as having any friends at all. 85 % of them are verbally bullied during the course of a school year.

6.3.3. It's hard to find a job being a non-heterosexual, the community looks down on you. Applicants affiliated with a gay organization were 40 % less likely to be called for an interview.

6.4. Spiritual Health

6.4.1. "THINGS ARE WORTHLESS" - Most non-heterosexual beings would quit practicing a religion. As one becomes more pessimistic about life and stop seeking for purpose because they pray too much to become disappointed.

6.4.2. "BANNED FROM BELIEVING" - Most gay people are banned from going to churchs as Christianity does not accept non-heterosexual individuals. This will lead to absurdity in which they're banned from "believing" - resulting hopelessness.

6.5. The primary cause of homeless LGBT youths comes from family rejection. The people that has most potential in accepting who you really are is now rejecting you. Where-else can they seek for help if they're abandoned by their own family.

6.6. "THE BIRTH OF MALICE THOUGHTS" - They believe that they don't deserve to be happy because of who they are. They'd start to feel like a villain, a monster. Their purpose for life will change and so as their personality. They'll develop a thought that "if no one treats them nicely, why should they do the same?"

6.7. Emotional Health

6.7.1. traumatic experiences can eventually lead to great depression and anxiety, which increases the probability of a non-heterosexual to harm their own physical health.

6.7.2. They'd start to feel oppressed, desiring an escape. The unpleasant feeling of not being able to do anything, powerless. 40% population of the children at school (globally) are physically abused by other kids at school as 19% of them are assaulted on a regular basis.

6.7.3. The feeling of despair and hopelessness will lead to anger. That anger can lead to becoming reckless, doing things that could jeopardize their life because they simply do not care anymore.

7. Inter Component Connections

7.1. If observing the subject closely, one can see that each component of health connects to one another, like a domino chain.

7.1.1. 1) SOCIAL HEALTH - They become socially unaccepted. They are bullied and assaulted by others, and quarantined from the heterosexuals. They start to isolate themself from the crowd.

7.1.2. 2) EMOTIONAL HEALTH - When a queer starts to experience traumatic events like being bullied, they'd start to become emotionally disturbed, expressing unpleasant emotions like depression and anxiety.

7.1.3. 3) MENTAL HEALTH -That depression will soon turn into fear, as unpleasant events is continuosly happening to them. It causes a pyschological distress, affecting their mental health

7.1.4. 4) SPIRITUAL HEALTH - They'd start to quit on having fidelity on the gods or loses their purpose in life; as praying has done nothing but make them feel more unaccepted - hopelessness starts to develop.

7.1.5. 5) PHYSICAL HEALTH - That hopelessness soons turn into anger. When things are now frivolous to them, they'd start to either cut themself because of dissastisfaction about their body, or overuse drugs like alcohol to make the pain go away - or even worse, commits suicide.