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Intelligence by Mind Map: Intelligence
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Intelligence

the adaptive ability to learn from experiences through complex mental processes to modify future behavior to accomplish a new task.

Components of Intelligence

Theoretical Perspectives

Spearman's General Factor g, The general ability to think about a wide variety of tasks

Cattell's Crystal and Fluid Intelligence, Two distinct components of general intelligence, Fluid Intelligence, The ability to acquire knowledge quickly, Crystallized Intelligence, Knowledge and skills accumulated from past experiences

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences, People have multiple intelligences that are independent of one another

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory, Intelligence involves an environmental context, prior experiences, and cognitive processes

Distributed Intelligence, People perform more intelligently when working with others

Measures of Intelligence

General Intelligence Tests, Wechler Intelligence Scale, Consists of 13 tests with verbal tests and object manipulation, Examples of tests include symbolic and spatial memory tests, Test scores are based upon a verbal score and a nonverbal score (performance score), Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Uses responses from from verbal material such as defining vocabulary, and others involving concrete objects (remembering a sequence of pictures), Provides an overall IQ score as well as more specific scores such as knowledge and quantitative reasoning, Universal Non-Verbal Intelligence Test, Unlike the other tests, this involves no language whatsoever., Consists of six subtests involving memory or reasoning using visual stimuli, Commonly used for children with hearing impairments or disabilities, but can be applied universally

Specific Ability Tests, Developed to assess specific cognitive abilities

Group Differences

Hereditary and Environmental Influences

Questions/Critiques on Intelligence

I agree that intelligence requires many different processes working together to be effective

I agree with the importance of nature and nurture in establishing one's intelligence

I think Gardner's theories on multiple intelligences is valid, considering there are many different types of "smart" people in the world

Why is there so much emphasis on IQ scores when they are subjectively given by researchers?

I question the impact specific ability tests have on overall intelligence. If a person cannot complete one task out of five, but does complete the other four, I would consider them to still be intelligent.

Children and Intelligence

Nature vs. Nurture

The environment in which a child is raised plays a part in the shaping of their intelligence., Different environments provide different opportunities to gather and process information

The way a child is raised (child rearing) plays a role in how intelligence is shaped, Productive and reinforcing behaviors by parents provide a comforting and encouraging environment, Opportunities to participate in school and extracurricular activities increase the child's cognitive processes

Socio-Economic Status

Plays into the child's ability to have access to certain opportunities and activities

Gender Differences

Males and Females learn differently

Ethnic and Racial Differences

Cognitive differences vary amongst races