Multicultural Education

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Multicultural Education by Mind Map: Multicultural Education

1. Content Integration

1.1. (Bergeron, 2008)

1.1.1. Brown (2004) describes culturally responsive teaching as that which involves “purposefully responding to the needs of the many culturally and ethnically diverse learners in classrooms” (p. 268), in part through the implementation of student-orientated practices and the use of relevant curricula. A culturally responsive curriculum provides different scenarios from those prescribed in textbooks, for example, and counteracts traditional views that predominantly place Western heroes into historical contexts.

1.2. (Cavitt, 2013)

1.2.1. In selecting music for performance with instrumental ensembles, young teachers can be encouraged to go beyond the prescribed music lists and consider multicultural music, music of their students' cultures, and music that is preferred by the student population and viewed as "their" music. Students can help with the process.

1.3. (Griggs & Tidwell, 2013)

1.3.1. Because this course is a required one and contains unfamiliar content for most of the students who take it, the trajectory of the course starts with teachers’ stories and personal practical knowledge (Connelly & Clandinin, 1988) of working in and for diversity. From there, it jumps to a discussion of the rationale for learning about multiculturalism from a societal perspective (including political, economic, sociological, and anthropological dimensions), eventually circling back to deeper reflection on a person’s own attitudes about issues of race, class, gender, and ability, and finally to discussions of the implications for teaching practice in and for diversity.

1.4. (Gritter, et al., 2016)

1.4.1. Sustainability study should involve interdisciplinary teaching and learning, inquiry instruction, critical thinking and problem solving, and cooperative learning (McEwen & Greene, 2009) because this kind of learning mimics the way environmental activism is done in the real world and scaffolds future action. We believe that the oral myths passed to tribal elders can act as the glue to incite inquiry, critical thinking, and collaborative problem solving

1.5. ASCD Video

1.5.1. Effective teachers build on prior experiences of their students. In a culturally diverse classroom, a teacher can enable students to share experiences that bridge what they already know with what they are studying […] and broaden the horizons of fellow students at the same time. […] They get very excited when they can talk about their homeland.

1.6. (Milner & Tenore, 2010)

1.6.1. The fact that Mr. Hall acknowledged and engaged the race issue with his students served as a bridge in terms of building relationships with his students which appeared to be critical for culturally responsive classroom management.

1.7. (Pusateri, 2018)

1.7.1. Standard 3.1c also indicates that instructional strategies and activities should be consistently monitored and aligned with diverse student populations, and should be responsive to the varying cultural needs of students […] Create a classroom culture that is welcoming for all learners […] Use instructional materials that relate to a variety of cultures

1.8. (Richards, et al., 2006)

1.8.1. Teachers should, to the extent possible, use textbooks, design bulletin boards, and 1� 2� implement classroom activities culturally supportive of their students. When the schoolassigned textbooks and other instructional materials perpetuate stereotypes (e.g., African Americans portrayed as athletes) or fail to adequately represent diverse groups (e.g., books containing no images or perspectives of Native Americans, Latinos(as), and other non-Anglo Saxons), teachers must supplement instruction with resources rich in diversity and sensitive in portrayal of individuals from different backgrounds.

2. Knowledge Construction

2.1. (Bergeron, 2008)

2.1.1. Within a culturally responsive classroom, it is important for teachers to reflect on the cultural assumptions that underlie lessons and classroom interactions. These reflections will lead to experiences that are more productive and empowering for the students (Pransky & Bailey, 2002/2003).

2.2. (Cavitt, 2013)

2.2.1. Help public school students to create authentic musical experiences that resemble their expectations. Let students make decisions in regards to what music they perform. Help students to construct knowledge and create and compose music that is appealing to them.

2.3. (Griggs & Tidwell, 2013)

2.3.1. To be a transformationist, Howard (2006) argued, an individual needs to recognize the complexity of constructing truth through different lenses, by “actively seeking to understand diverse points of view” (p. 110). This dynamic process shifts across differing cultural and social contexts. A transformationist is aware of the multiplicity of perspectives about what is true and finds the individual view as one among many possibilities.

2.4. (Gritter, et al., 2016)

2.4.1. Environmental and sustainable action finds strength in narrative ways of knowing. Bruner (1986) defines narrative ways of knowing as making sense of the world through stories. Great teachers, including Jesus, Ghandi, and inspirational tribal leaders such as Chief Seattle, have used stories to encourage people to make humanitarian and just choices for the benefit of others […] Narrative ways of knowing allows students to examine stories in a manner that encourages affective decision-making especially if they explicate their decisions in narrative writing (Srnagorinksy, 2012).

2.5. ASCD Video

2.5.1. Understanding how students learn or construct knowledge is fundamental for capitalizing on cultural differences to enhance academic achievement. […] Learning also thrives on analysis, reflection, and interpretation of issues that are meaningful to the students.

2.6. (Milner & Tenore, 2010)

2.6.1. Classroom management and meeting the needs of diverse learners is about students’ opportunities to learn in a context: teachers should work to manage student learning opportunities not to control students. The latter approach, where teachers spend their energy attempting to control students, reinforces hegemonic systems that can teach students to become amenable and complacent rather than critically engaged citizens who work against oppression in the broader society.

2.7. (Pusateri, 2018)

2.7.1. Provide student choice on assignments; Create lessons that connect the content to your students’ culture and daily lives

2.8. (Richards, et al., 2006)

2.8.1. Teachers must prepare students to participate meaningfully and responsibly not only in the classroom but also in society. Meaningful and responsible participation requires everyone to critically examine societal policies and practices, and to work to correct injustices that exist. Students must be taught that if the world is to be a better place where everyone is treated fairly, then they have to work to make it so. This is their responsibility as citizens of their country and inhabitants of the earth. To foster this consciousness, teachers might have students write group or individual letters to politicians and newspaper editors voicing their concerns about specific social issues; or students might participate in food or clothing drives to help people less fortunate.

3. Equity Pedagogy

3.1. (Bergeron, 2008)

3.1.1. A culturally responsive curriculum benefits all children by building on the richness of varied lived experiences and cultures to make learning more meaningful […] Culturally responsive teachers bridge the gap between school and the students’ homes by adapting instruction to meet the learning needs of all students and providing consistency with the values of students’ own cultures.

3.2. (Cavitt, 2013)

3.2.1. Preparing teachers to create a positive learning culture through inclusion, peer tutoring, thoughtful instrument selection, and appropriate musical experiences is an important aspect of training preservice teachers at the university […] Future music educators must be more responsive to the issues of race, gender, socioeconomic status, abilities, and disabilities in order to accommodate and enable students. As we prepare preservice teachers, we have a social obligation and professional responsibility to urge them to change music education to reflect and include all cultures and all students.

3.3. (Griggs & Tidwell, 2013)

3.3.1. Students responded online to prompts I provided based on weekly reading assignments. I then closely read these responses. I formulated my responses to them by mindfully attending to evidence of White identity development as I saw it reflected in the White students’ postings.

3.4. (Gritter, et al., 2016)

3.4.1. Sustainability study should be culturally responsive. Culturally responsive teaching affirms the contributions of a multicultural society and appreciates the prior knowledge of all students […] Sustainability concepts and practices thrive in place-based learning. Because it uses local history, culture, economics, environment, and circumstances as the basis for a curriculum, place-based learning capitalizes on and respects the setting in which students live.

3.5. ASCD Video

3.5.1. Getting to know your students as individuals is also important. Teachers need to know the interests, strengths, and weaknesses of their students. Taking time for informal conversation is important.

3.6. (Kannapel, et al., 2005)

3.6.1. They looked closely at what each student was doing in school, often consulting several kinds of information about individual students. One principal spoke of looking at test data and then calling students by name—she wanted teachers to tell her by name which students in the class were not doing well in a given subject area. They personalized academic achievement. Once they knew who was not doing well on what, they made plans for improving that studentʼs performance.

3.7. (Milner & Tenore, 2010)

3.7.1. For instance, equity in education may mean that teachers are attempting to provide students, regardless of their racial, ethnic, cultural, or SES background with what they need to succeed—not necessarily the exact same goals and visions across the board. In this sense, equity does not necessarily mean sameness but means that what is necessary for successful classroom management in one school, district, or with one student may be quite different from another.

3.8. (Pusateri, 2018)

3.8.1. Standard 3.1c also indicates that instructional strategies and activities should be consistently monitored and aligned with diverse student populations, and should be responsive to the varying cultural needs of students. Differentiation is an essential component to Tier 1 Response to Intervention and should be embedded in core classroom instruction for all students. It is a key component of improving instruction in response to the needs of all learners, thus addressing achievement gaps for targeted populations of students.

3.9. (Richards, et al., 2006)

3.9.1. The assessment of students’ abilities and achievement must be as accurate and complete as possible if effective instructional programming is to occur. This can only be accomplished when the assessment instruments and procedures are valid for the population being assessed.

4. Prejudice Reduction

4.1. (Bergeron, 2008)

4.1.1. Culturally responsive instruction stresses respect for diversity to engage the motivation of all learners while creating a safe and inclusive climate (Phuntsog, 1999).

4.2. (Cavitt, 2013)

4.2.1. Teachers must ensure that the music curricula are designed to stress the importance of multicultural music making. We live in a culture that is becoming more diverse each day. Students need to understand that there are many types of musical systems, and different but equally valid ways to make music.

4.3. (Griggs & Tidwell, 2013)

4.3.1. My instructional goal was to encourage these students to reflect deeply on their own attitudes about issues of race, diversity, and multiculturalism.

4.4. (Gritter, et al., 2016)

4.4.1. [O]ur literacy curriculum teaches sustainability principles and is also highly respectful to Native American philosophies and culture. Textbooks tend to offer two historical lenses of Native Americans: either dead-and-buried or with a "cultural tourist" approach that views Native Americans as exotic or highly different from the student reader (Lomawaima, 1995; Sanchez, 2007). Such presentation ultimately does not translate into respect for Native American views (Lomawaima & McCartney, 2006). Textbook depictions of modern Native Americans tend to be associated with owning or working in casinos, or living isolated lives on reservations (Hawkins, 2005).

4.5. ASCD Video

4.5.1. I do a number of things to try to get to know my students. One of the things you’ll notice at the front of the room is that they did posters titled "My Personal Culture." So that was one way recently we've been able to celebrate each other’s differences and personal cultures.

4.6. (Kannapel, et al., 2005)

4.6.1. The caring, nurturing atmosphere in each of the eight schools related closely to high expectations. Audit team members, as well as the authors of this report, were impressed by the respectful relationships we observed and were told about—relationships among adults, between adults and children, and among children.

4.7. (Milner & Tenore, 2010)

4.7.1. Teachers allow students to learn things about them and make connections to demonstrate the commonalities that exist between students and teachers. They share their stories with their students and allow students to share theirs with them to build community.

4.8. (Pusateri, 2018)

4.8.1. Allow students to collaborate and work in groups […] Students support each other for the success of the entire class

4.9. (Richards, et al., 2006)

4.9.1. In a classroom of diverse cultures, languages, and abilities, it is imperative that all students feel fairly treated and respected. When students are subjected to unfair discrimination because of their differences, the results can be feelings of unworthiness, frustration, or anger, often resulting in low achievement. Teachers need to establish and maintain standards of behavior that require respectful treatment of all in the classroom.

5. Empowering School Culture

5.1. (Bergeron, 2008)

5.1.1. Students are more successful when schools honor and value each child as an individual (Menchaca, 2001) and will participate more in the learning process when their own background experiences are aligned with the school task (Pransky & Bailey, 2002/2003). In addition, the academic achievement of students from culturally diverse backgrounds will improve if schools and teachers make an attempt to ensure that instruction is responsive to the students’ home culture (Phuntsog, 1999).

5.2. (Cavitt, 2013)

5.2.1. Schools function as representatives of culture and play an important role in shaping student attitudes toward people with disabilities.

5.3. (Griggs & Tidwell, 2013)

5.3.1. Specifically, I am concerned with how mindfulness influences the way I discuss diversity with my graduate students so that it will be meaningful to them, enable them to engage with the complex issues involved in teaching in diverse environments, and impact their understanding of its significance in their professional lives.

5.4. (Gritter, et al., 2016)

5.4.1. Jackson and Davis (2000) observe that an aspect of quality middle school education should include "adding value to others in the school and community" (p. 37). Even more specifically, place based learning can be leveraged "to increase students' appreciation of their local environments with the ultimate end of helping students learn ways to sustain their local environments" (Jennings, Swidler, & Koliba, 2005, p. 50). For us, place-based learning starts with using local environmental activists as co-teachers. Local newspaper articles and news stories around environmental concerns serve as primary texts to examine as activists, in our case, tribal elders, share their solutions to environmental problems.

5.5. ASCD Video

5.5.1. The better you know your students, the better able you are to reach them academically and emotionally, so it’s very important to know your students, what your students’ preferences are, what their personal likes are, what their academic needs are, what their emotional needs are…that is vitally important.

5.6. (Kannapel, et al., 2005)

5.6.1. The 11 indicators under this standard encompass such characteristics as providing a safe and orderly environment; holding high expectations for students; teachers accepting their professional role in student success and failure; assigning staff according to their strengths; communicating regularly with families; caring about students; valuing and celebrating student achievement; being committed to equity; and appreciating diversity.

5.7. (Milner & Tenore, 2010)

5.7.1. The idea was “we are family and a community, and we must work together.” […] A sixth principle that seems to extend culturally responsive classroom management is teachers’ conceptions of school as a community with family members.

5.8. (Pusateri, 2018)

5.8.1. High expectations; Positive relationships with families and community

5.9. (Richards, et al., 2006)

5.9.1. To make the institution more culturally responsive, reforms must occur in at least three specific areas (Little, 1999): Organization of the school—This includes the administrative structure and the way it relates to diversity, and the use of physical space in planning schools and arranging classrooms. School policies and procedures—This refers to those policies and practices that impact on the delivery of services to students from diverse backgrounds. Community involvement—This is concerned with the institutional approach to community involvement in which families and communities are expected to find ways to become involved in the school, rather than the school seeking connections with families and communities.