The Mayans

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The Mayans by Mind Map: The Mayans

1. maintaining order of society and the balance of the two dimensions

2. Geography/topography

2.1. Central America

2.1.1. What is now Yucatan, Guatemala, Belize and southern mexico

2.2. Topography

2.2.1. volcanic mountains, which comprised the highlands in the South, to a porous limestone shelf, known as the Lowlands, in the central and northern regions

2.2.2. Lowlands- produced crops

2.2.3. Highlands- source of metals

3. Religion

3.1. Gods

3.1.1. Itzamna main god brought his people maize and cacao and taught them script, healing, and the use of calendars superhuman strength, stamina, vitality and resistance to injury. He also has the ability to tap into and manipulate mystical energies on the level of Zeus, Odin or Osiris

3.1.2. Kukulcan god of resurrection and reincarnation god of four elements, earth, water fire, air

3.1.3. Chac rain god associated with the wind god, Kukulcan

3.2. Rituals

3.2.1. Sacrifices Bloodletting was a Mayan practice. Bloodletting is the cutting (not necessarily killing) of a person or animal to release blood. Source of blood dependent on the desired outcome of the ritual. Small animals were used for smaller requests and big animals were used for more grand rituals. Ex: Seventeen jaguars were sacrificed to dedicate a temple altar in the city of Copan.

3.2.2. Methods Cutting throat, disemboweling, casting into a well, cutting open chest and removing a still beating heart.

3.2.3. Reasons Bring rain, increase crops, and dedicate temples and ball courts.

3.3. Ball Courts

3.3.1. Much like modern day basketball

3.3.2. Winning captain would be decapitated. Considered a great honor. Winner would get a direct ticket to heaven instead of going through the 13 steps that the Mayan's believed they had to go through in order to reach heaven..

3.3.3. The field, size of football field, is bordered by two imposing walls 26 feet tall. Seven combatants on each team tried to get a small rubber ball to go through a small stone hoop 23 feet above the ground without using their hands or feet to touch the ball.

4. Architecture

4.1. Pyramids

4.1.1. Made of Limestone and clay

4.1.2. Two types of Pyramids Ones that where not meant to be climed Ones that were meant to be climed These where used for religious reasons

4.1.3. Used as landmarks, and sometimes a burial for high ranking Officials

4.2. Temples

4.2.1. Limestone and clay

4.2.2. were important to their ritual value

4.2.3. priest would preform their sacrifical ritual on these temples

4.2.4. Behind the plat form would be a picture of the god of that city

4.2.5. Each mayan city had one

4.3. Houses

4.3.1. Made out of organic material Straw, Mud, Clay, Stone, Wood

5. Art

5.1. Paintings

5.1.1. Mostly done in their books

5.1.2. On stone, walls, clothing, pottery, rocks ,and sometimes jade

5.1.3. Mainly painted on their wars, depressions and ceremonies

5.2. Jewelery

5.2.1. Most important for apperance

5.3. Apperance

5.3.1. Long necks

5.3.2. Flat heads

5.3.3. Hooked nose

5.4. Body art

5.4.1. Different colors of body paint Priest wore blue, Warriors wore red and black, and the youth wore white

5.4.2. Piercings

6. Government

6.1. Not a unified empire

6.1.1. A multitude of separate entities

6.2. Priest were the rulers also

6.2.1. Only priests/rulers/kings were allowed to be in the temples.

6.2.2. The priests lived in huge palaces.

6.2.3. Priests in small villages were the godfathers and assisted in births.

6.2.4. Priests led ceremonies like ch'acak to please the gods.ew node

6.3. hereditary= absolute monarchy

6.4. Taxes were paid

6.5. Crimes were punished with death

6.6. Social Hierarchy

6.6.1. Nobles

6.6.2. Commoners

6.6.3. Slaves

7. Military

7.1. Weapons

7.1.1. the bow and arrow, blowguns, spears, axes, knives with blades of volcanic glass , and spear-throwing slings called ‘atatls’.

8. Economy

8.1. Primly crop

8.2. Food and agriculture

8.3. Farmers were a big part to the economy

8.3.1. Brought in food for the civilization

8.4. TRADE

8.4.1. Domesticated animals, crops, and jewelery

8.4.2. Farmers gave a portion of their crop away for wealth

8.4.3. small towns did not need to take part in long-distance trading trade to local bartering and exchange

9. Writing

9.1. Hieroglyphic Writing

9.1.1. like no other writing system

9.1.2. a number of simple word-pictures or a sophisticated phonetic system

9.1.3. combinations of only 26 signs—that list of letters we call an Alphabet.

9.2. Logographic Writing

10. Technology

10.1. Math

10.1.1. Calendar predict when the sun would set what time of day it was even predicted the world would end in 2012

10.1.2. numeral system Three symbols horizontal line, a dot and a oval symbol

11. Society

11.1. Class System

11.2. Clothing

11.3. Marriage

11.4. Hygiene

12. Agriculture

12.1. Farming

12.1.1. Highlands

12.1.2. Lowlands

12.2. Crops

12.2.1. Maize Preparation of maize 1. Kernels boiled in lime 2. Hominy ground into dough 3. Dough made into 'tamales' or 'tortillas'

12.2.2. Beans

12.2.3. Squash

12.2.4. Chile peppers

12.2.5. Sweet manoic

13. Basic History and information

13.1. Dates

13.1.1. 10th millennium BCE

13.1.2. Mayan Time periods Classic period Pre-Classic Post-Classic

13.2. Cities

13.3. Inventions

14. The Collapse of the Maya

14.1. Theories

14.1.1. Ecological

14.1.2. Non-ecological