The Mayans

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The Mayans by Mind Map: The Mayans

1. maintaining order of society and the balance of the two dimensions

2. Government

2.1. Not a unified empire

2.1.1. A multitude of separate entities

2.2. Priest were the rulers also

2.2.1. Only priests/rulers/kings were allowed to be in the temples.

2.2.2. The priests lived in huge palaces.

2.2.3. Priests in small villages were the godfathers and assisted in births.

2.2.4. Priests led ceremonies like ch'acak to please the gods.ew node

2.3. hereditary= absolute monarchy

2.4. Taxes were paid

2.5. Crimes were punished with death

2.6. Social Hierarchy

2.6.1. Nobles

2.6.2. Commoners

2.6.3. Slaves

3. Military

3.1. Weapons

3.1.1. the bow and arrow, blowguns, spears, axes, knives with blades of volcanic glass , and spear-throwing slings called ‘atatls’.

4. Economy

4.1. Primly crop

4.2. Food and agriculture

4.3. Farmers were a big part to the economy

4.3.1. Brought in food for the civilization

4.4. TRADE

4.4.1. Domesticated animals, crops, and jewelery

4.4.2. Farmers gave a portion of their crop away for wealth

4.4.3. small towns did not need to take part in long-distance trading

4.4.3.1. trade to local bartering and exchange

5. Writing

5.1. Hieroglyphic Writing

5.1.1. like no other writing system

5.1.2. a number of simple word-pictures or a sophisticated phonetic system

5.1.3. combinations of only 26 signs—that list of letters we call an Alphabet.

5.2. Logographic Writing

6. Technology

6.1. Math

6.1.1. Calendar

6.1.1.1. predict when the sun would set

6.1.1.2. what time of day it was

6.1.1.3. even predicted the world would end in 2012

6.1.2. numeral system

6.1.2.1. Three symbols

6.1.2.1.1. horizontal line, a dot and a oval symbol

7. Society

7.1. Class System

7.2. Clothing

7.3. Marriage

7.4. Hygiene

8. Agriculture

8.1. Farming

8.1.1. Highlands

8.1.2. Lowlands

8.2. Crops

8.2.1. Maize

8.2.1.1. Preparation of maize

8.2.1.1.1. 1. Kernels boiled in lime

8.2.1.1.2. 2. Hominy ground into dough

8.2.1.1.3. 3. Dough made into 'tamales' or 'tortillas'

8.2.2. Beans

8.2.3. Squash

8.2.4. Chile peppers

8.2.5. Sweet manoic

9. Basic History and information

9.1. Dates

9.1.1. 10th millennium BCE

9.1.2. Mayan Time periods

9.1.2.1. Classic period

9.1.2.2. Pre-Classic

9.1.2.3. Post-Classic

9.2. Cities

9.3. Inventions

10. The Collapse of the Maya

10.1. Theories

10.1.1. Ecological

10.1.2. Non-ecological

11. Geography/topography

11.1. Central America

11.1.1. What is now Yucatan, Guatemala, Belize and southern mexico

11.2. Topography

11.2.1. volcanic mountains, which comprised the highlands in the South, to a porous limestone shelf, known as the Lowlands, in the central and northern regions

11.2.2. Lowlands- produced crops

11.2.3. Highlands- source of metals

12. Religion

12.1. Gods

12.1.1. Itzamna

12.1.1.1. main god

12.1.1.2. brought his people maize and cacao and taught them script, healing, and the use of calendars

12.1.1.3. superhuman strength, stamina, vitality and resistance to injury. He also has the ability to tap into and manipulate mystical energies on the level of Zeus, Odin or Osiris

12.1.2. Kukulcan

12.1.2.1. god of resurrection and reincarnation

12.1.2.2. god of four elements, earth, water fire, air

12.1.3. Chac

12.1.3.1. rain god

12.1.3.2. associated with the wind god, Kukulcan

12.2. Rituals

12.2.1. Sacrifices

12.2.1.1. Bloodletting was a Mayan practice. Bloodletting is the cutting (not necessarily killing) of a person or animal to release blood. Source of blood dependent on the desired outcome of the ritual.

12.2.1.2. Small animals were used for smaller requests and big animals were used for more grand rituals.

12.2.1.2.1. Ex: Seventeen jaguars were sacrificed to dedicate a temple altar in the city of Copan.

12.2.2. Methods

12.2.2.1. Cutting throat, disemboweling, casting into a well, cutting open chest and removing a still beating heart.

12.2.3. Reasons

12.2.3.1. Bring rain, increase crops, and dedicate temples and ball courts.

12.3. Ball Courts

12.3.1. Much like modern day basketball

12.3.2. Winning captain would be decapitated. Considered a great honor. Winner would get a direct ticket to heaven instead of going through the 13 steps that the Mayan's believed they had to go through in order to reach heaven..

12.3.3. The field, size of football field, is bordered by two imposing walls 26 feet tall. Seven combatants on each team tried to get a small rubber ball to go through a small stone hoop 23 feet above the ground without using their hands or feet to touch the ball.

13. Architecture

13.1. Pyramids

13.1.1. Made of Limestone and clay

13.1.2. Two types of Pyramids

13.1.2.1. Ones that where not meant to be climed

13.1.2.2. Ones that were meant to be climed

13.1.2.2.1. These where used for religious reasons

13.1.3. Used as landmarks, and sometimes a burial for high ranking Officials

13.2. Temples

13.2.1. Limestone and clay

13.2.2. were important to their ritual value

13.2.3. priest would preform their sacrifical ritual on these temples

13.2.4. Behind the plat form would be a picture of the god of that city

13.2.5. Each mayan city had one

13.3. Houses

13.3.1. Made out of organic material

13.3.1.1. Straw, Mud, Clay, Stone, Wood

14. Art

14.1. Paintings

14.1.1. Mostly done in their books

14.1.2. On stone, walls, clothing, pottery, rocks ,and sometimes jade

14.1.3. Mainly painted on their wars, depressions and ceremonies

14.2. Jewelery

14.2.1. Most important for apperance

14.3. Apperance

14.3.1. Long necks

14.3.2. Flat heads

14.3.3. Hooked nose

14.4. Body art

14.4.1. Different colors of body paint

14.4.1.1. Priest wore blue, Warriors wore red and black, and the youth wore white

14.4.2. Piercings