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Policing by Mind Map: Policing

1. Policing in the US

1.1. Colonial Era & Early Republic

1.1.1. East coast: colonists adopted English customs

1.1.1.1. Boston's watch system

1.1.1.1.1. warned of dangers

1.1.1.1.2. each male citizen was required to be a member

1.1.1.1.3. paid members could be hired as replacements

1.1.2. South: slave patrols served as organized forces to prevent slave revolt and catch runaway slaves

1.1.3. violent riots, ethnic conflicts, mob actions

1.1.3.1. contributed to fear that stable democracy would collapse

1.1.3.1.1. helped encourage creation of professional police force

1.2. Professional Model Era

1.2.1. influenced by progressive movement

1.2.1.1. two goals

1.2.1.1.1. more efficient government

1.2.1.1.2. more government services

1.2.1.2. "The police have to get out of politics, and politics has to get out of police"

1.2.2. six elements

1.2.2.1. members should be well trained, disciplined, and organized

1.2.2.2. laws should be enforced equally

1.2.2.3. the force should use new technology

1.2.2.4. the force should stay out of politics

1.2.2.5. personnel procedures should be based on merit

1.2.2.6. main task of police should be fighting crime

1.3. Community Policing Era (Current)

1.3.1. greater emphasis put on keeping order and providing services to community rather than fighting crime

1.3.2. police should work more on "little problems"

1.3.3. community policing

1.3.3.1. approach to policing that emphasized close personal contact between police and citizens and the inclusion of citizens in effort to solve problems

1.3.4. problem-oriented policing

1.3.4.1. community policing strategy that emphasizes solving problems of disorder in a neighborhood that may contribute to crime and fear of crime

1.3.5. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office)

1.3.5.1. provides grants for hiring new officers and developing community policing programs

1.4. Evidence based Policing?

1.4.1. Emphasis on homeland security has grown with intelligence led policing

1.4.1.1. Interpol

1.4.1.1.1. priority crime areas

1.4.2. intelligence led policing

1.4.2.1. emphasizes gathering and analyzing information to be shared among agencies in order to develop cooperative efforts to identify, prevent, and solve problems

2. Use of Force

2.1. police may use legitimate force to do their job

2.2. excessive use of force

2.2.1. applications of force against individuals that either violate departmental policy, the constitution, or the level of force permissible/necessary in a given situation

2.2.2. FOURTH AMENDMENT PROBLEM

2.3. Tennessee v. Garner

2.3.1. police may not use deadly force on a fleeing felon unless it is necessary to prevent escape and the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses significant threat of death or serious physical injury to the officer or others

3. Investigation

3.1. detectives

3.1.1. investigate crimes that have already occurred by questioning witnesses and gathering evidence

3.2. apprehension

3.2.1. detection of crime

3.2.2. preliminary investigatoin

3.2.2.1. may be followed by clearance and arrest

3.2.3. follow up investigation

4. Police Subculture

4.1. The working personality

4.1.1. threat of danger

4.1.1.1. officers have to be on edge and aware of people's behavioral cues

4.1.1.2. a seemingly safe situation can turn dangerous quickly

4.1.2. need to maintain authority

4.1.2.1. need to establish authority through their actions

4.2. Police morality

4.2.1. Steve Herbert

4.2.1.1. contradiction between wanting to prevent crime and inability to do so

4.2.1.2. officers feel they must use their discretion to handle situations that do not strictly follow procedures

4.2.1.3. they act against at least one citizen's interest

4.3. Police Isolation

4.3.1. May increase when they believe public is hostile to them

4.4. Job Stress

4.4.1. External stress

4.4.2. organizational stress

4.4.2.1. nature of work; adjustment to irregular work hours

4.4.3. personal stress

4.4.4. operational stress

4.4.4.1. total effect of dealing with criminals; being lied to very often

5. Law Enforcement Agencies

5.1. County Agencies

5.1.1. Sheriff's departments

5.1.1.1. well organized in south and west

5.1.1.2. responsible for policing rural areas

5.2. State Agencies

5.2.1. regulate traffic on main highways

5.2.2. provide law enforcement services in rural areas

5.2.3. operate in areas where no other form of police protection exists or where local officers ask for help

5.3. Municipal Agencies

5.3.1. police departments of cities and towns

5.3.2. have general law enforcement authority

5.4. Native American Tribal Police

5.4.1. Native American Tribes are separate nations with the power to enforce their own tribal laws on everyone in their lands

5.5. Special Jurisdiction

5.5.1. University police

5.5.2. conservation officers

5.5.3. mass transit systems

5.6. Federal Agencies

5.6.1. FBI

5.6.1.1. has the power to investigate all federal crimes not placed under the jurisdiction of other agencies

5.6.1.2. Special agents

5.6.1.2.1. sworn law enforcement officers in the FBI who conduct investigations and make arrests

5.6.1.3. Priorities of the FBI

5.6.1.3.1. Protect US from terrorist attacks

5.6.1.3.2. Protect US from foreign intelligence operations and espionage

5.6.1.3.3. protect US from cyber attacks and high-technology crimes

5.6.1.3.4. combat public corruption

5.6.1.3.5. protect civil rights

5.6.1.3.6. combat transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises

6. Development of Police

6.1. English Roots

6.1.1. local control

6.1.2. limited authority

6.1.2.1. powers and duties limited by laws

6.1.3. fragmented organization

6.1.3.1. FBI

6.1.3.2. Sheriff

6.1.3.3. city police

6.1.4. frankpledge system

6.1.4.1. required groups of families to uphold the law

6.1.5. Sir Robert Peel

6.1.5.1. Four part mandate of police

6.1.5.1.1. prevent crime without using repressive force and avoid having to call on the military

6.1.5.1.2. maintain public order by nonviolent means

6.1.5.1.3. reduce conflict between police and public

6.1.5.1.4. show efficiency through the absence of crime rather than police actions

6.2. Political Era

6.2.1. close ties between police and politics

6.2.1.1. police helped gain vote for favored candidate

6.2.1.2. sheriff

6.2.1.2.1. one of the first official positions

6.2.1.2.2. elected

6.2.1.3. US marshals

6.2.1.3.1. federal law enforcement officers originally used to handle duties in western territories

6.2.1.3.2. today they are responsible for providing federal court security and apprehending fugitives

6.2.2. police became public servants as well as crime control officers

7. Who are the Police?

7.1. Recruitment

7.1.1. must meet a number of requirements

7.1.2. law enforcement certification

7.1.2.1. preservice training required by sworn officers in many states

7.2. Changing profile of the police

7.2.1. minority police officers

7.2.1.1. increasing

7.2.2. women on the force

7.2.2.1. increasing

7.3. Training

7.3.1. Academy

7.3.2. formal training

7.3.2.1. demands social skills that can't be learned from a lecture or book

7.3.2.1.1. socialization

8. Police Functions

8.1. Order maintenance

8.1.1. prevent behavior that disturbs the peace or involves face to face conflict

8.2. law enforcement

8.3. service

8.3.1. providing assistance to the public for matters unrelated to crime

8.4. implementing the mandate

8.4.1. crime prevention over arrests

8.4.2. cooperation and assistance of community members is crucial to the effectiveness of the police

9. Organization of the police

9.1. Bureaucratic elements

9.1.1. division of labor

9.1.1.1. Administrative Division

9.1.1.1.1. administrative services; police academy/training

9.1.1.2. Operations Bureau

9.1.1.2.1. patrol units

9.1.1.2.2. community response division

9.1.1.3. Special Operations Bureau

9.1.1.3.1. criminal investigations

9.1.1.3.2. special services

9.1.1.4. Chief of Police

9.2. Chain and unity of command

9.2.1. military character illustrated by ranks

9.3. Operational units

9.4. Police Bureaucracy

9.4.1. police are the gateway through which information and individuals enter the criminal justice system

9.4.2. police administration is influenced by the fact that the outcome of a case is largely in others' hands

9.4.3. police officers are expected to observe rules and follow orders of superiors while also making discretionary judgments

9.4.4. organization and operation of the police are affected by economic conditions and budget pressures

10. Police Policy

10.1. watchman style

10.1.1. stresses order maintenance

10.1.2. tolerates minor violations of the law as officers use discretion to handle small infractions

10.2. legalistic style

10.2.1. emphasizes strict enforcement of laws and reduces officers' authority to handle matters informally

10.3. service style

10.3.1. officers cater to citizens' desire for favorable treatment and sensitivity to individual situations by using their discretion to handle minor offenses in ways other than punishment

11. Action of the Police

11.1. encounters between police and citizens

11.1.1. police must have the public's confidence

11.1.2. people's contact with police may shape their perceptions of police

11.1.2.1. may affect willingness to cooperate

11.1.2.1.1. fear

11.1.2.1.2. self-interest

11.2. police discretion

11.2.1. make wise choices in in varying situations about how and when to apply the law

11.2.1.1. nature of the crime

11.2.1.2. relationship between alleged criminal and victim

11.2.1.3. relationship between police and alleged criminal or victim

11.2.1.4. demographics

11.2.1.4.1. not supposed to be a factor but often is

11.2.1.5. departmental policy

12. Abuse of Power

12.1. corruption

12.1.1. grass eaters

12.1.1.1. officers who accept payoffs that the routines of policework bring their way

12.1.1.2. are not actively seeking corrutption

12.1.2. meat eaters

12.1.2.1. actively use power for personal gain

12.2. favoritism

12.3. discrimination

12.4. failure to carry out duties properly

13. Civic accountability

13.1. Internal Affairs units

13.1.1. branch of police department that receives and investigates complaints alleging violations of rules and policies by officers

13.2. Civilian Review Boards

13.2.1. citizens' committee formed to investigate complaints against police

13.2.2. do not have power to investigate or discipline individual officers

13.3. Standards of Accreditation

13.3.1. Commission of Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA)

13.3.1.1. develop standards for police policies and practice

13.3.1.2. review police agencies and award accreditation if they meet standards

13.4. Civil Liability Lawsuits

13.4.1. can increase police accountability

14. Delivery of Police Services

14.1. Police response

14.1.1. mainly reactive (as opposed to proactive)

14.1.1.1. respond to calls for sercive

14.1.2. incident-driven policing

14.1.2.1. policing in which calls for service are the primary instigators of action

14.1.3. differential response

14.1.3.1. assigns priorities to calls for service and chooses appropriate response

14.2. Productivity

14.2.1. CompStat

14.2.1.1. involves frequent meetings among police supervisors to examine crime statistics and develop approaches for crime prevention

14.2.2. clearance rate

14.2.2.1. percentage of crimes known to police that they believe they have solved

14.2.3. can sometimes be measured by number of traffic citations, parking tickets, stop-and-frisks

14.2.3.1. how do we use these as accurate productivity measures when police are given a certain quota?

15. Patrol Functions

15.1. Patrol

15.1.1. sworn officers

15.1.1.1. taken an oath and received power to make arrests and use necessary force when called for

15.1.1.2. Three primary functions

15.1.1.2.1. answering calls for help

15.1.1.2.2. maintaining a police presence

15.1.1.2.3. probing suspicious circumstances

15.1.2. Partol assignment

15.1.2.1. preventative patrol

15.1.2.1.1. many departments shifting focus to serving the public

15.1.2.2. HotSpots

15.1.2.2.1. directed patrol: assigning resources to well known high crime areas

15.1.2.3. foot patrol

15.1.2.3.1. officers stay close to daily life of neighborhood

15.1.2.4. motorized patrol

15.1.2.5. aggressive patrol

15.1.2.5.1. maximize police activity in the community

15.2. Special Operations

15.2.1. Traffic

15.2.2. vice

15.2.2.1. often involves use of undercover agents

15.2.3. juvenile

15.2.4. SWAT

15.2.5. regular patrol officers deal with these issues on a daily basis as well

15.3. Special populations

15.3.1. increasing number of "problem" people on the streets

15.3.2. police must know how to intervene given circumstances

15.4. Multicultural society

15.4.1. bias and stereotypes can affect officer decisions

16. Security Management and Private Policing

16.1. causes of increase in private policing and security management

16.1.1. increase of crime in workplace

16.1.2. increase in fear of crime

16.1.3. budget issues for police departments

16.1.4. increased public and business awareness and use of more cost-effective private security services

16.2. Functions

16.2.1. security systems and emergency response plans

16.2.2. police chiefs, fire chiefs, emergency management, computer security

16.2.3. may conduct investigations

16.3. Private employment of police officers

16.3.1. department contract model

16.3.1.1. firms must apply to department and department assigns officers to them

16.3.2. officer contract model

16.3.2.1. allows each officer to find off-duty employment and enter a direct relationship with private firm

16.3.3. union brokerage model

16.3.3.1. police union finds off-duty employment for its members

16.3.4. Potential problems

16.3.4.1. if an off-duty officer acts in a manner that the public would not approve of; the association to police department is still there

17. Legal Limitations on Police Investigations

17.1. Search and seizure

17.1.1. search

17.1.1.1. action by law enforcement that intrudes one a persons reasonable expectation of privacy

17.1.2. reasonable expectation of privacy

17.1.2.1. standard developed by courts for determining whether a government intrusion into a person's property constitutes a search

17.1.3. plain view doctrine

17.1.3.1. officers may examine and use evidence without a warrant that is in open view at a location where they are legally permitted to be

17.1.4. Seizures

17.1.4.1. situations in which police officers use their authority to deprive people of their liberty or property and that must not be unreasonable

17.1.5. stop

17.1.5.1. brief interference with a persons freedom of movement that can usually be measured in minutes (normally under an hour)

17.1.5.1.1. Rodriguez v. US

17.1.6. reasonable suspicion

17.1.6.1. a police officer's belief based on facts that criminal activity is afoot and necessitates further investigation

17.2. Concept of Arrest

17.2.1. must be supported by probable cause

17.2.1.1. reliable information indicating that it is more likely than not that evidence will be found in a specific location or that a specific person is guilty of a crime

17.3. Warrants and probable cause

17.3.1. can you grant a warrant based purely on the word of police officers?

17.3.2. if the police make errors seeking warrants or conducting searches the evidence could be deemed not usable in cort

17.3.3. evidence must be presented to the judicial officer and be supported by oath or affirmation

17.3.3.1. affadavit

17.3.3.1.1. written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation

17.3.4. warrant must describe the person or items to be seized

17.3.4.1. police cannot search a small drawer if they are seizing a person

18. Warrantless Searches

18.1. Exclusionary Rule

18.1.1. Evidence obtained in illegal ways cannot be used as evidence in court

18.1.1.1. exceptions

18.1.1.1.1. good faith

18.1.1.1.2. inevitable discovery

18.2. Special needs beyond normal purposes of law enforcement

18.2.1. border crossings

18.2.2. airlines

18.2.3. checkpoints

18.3. Stop and Frisks

18.3.1. Terry v. Ohio

18.3.1.1. legal stop and frisk consists of

18.3.1.1.1. police officer observes unusual conduct which leads him to reasonably conclude that criminal activity may be afoot

18.3.1.1.2. the person/people officer is dealing with may be armed and dangerous

18.3.1.1.3. identifies himself as a policeman

18.3.1.1.4. makes reasonable inquiries

18.3.1.1.5. if none of the above ease his suspicion, he is entitled for the protection of himself and others to conduct a carefully limited search in attempt to discover weapons

18.4. Search incident to lawful arrest

18.4.1. Chimel v. California

18.4.1.1. officers may search arrestees for weapons and evidence that the arrestee may destroy before they are able to get a warrant

18.4.1.1.1. able to search arrestee and area around the arrestee

18.5. Exigent Circumstances

18.5.1. officers can make arrests without a warrant when there is an urgent situation in which they must act quickly and they do not have time to obtain a warrant

18.5.2. can be used to enter buildings if there is an altercation or something of the sort going on inside

18.5.2.1. plain view doctrine when officer enters premises

18.5.3. Cupp v. Murphy

18.5.3.1. blood under fingernails when being questioned by wifes murder

18.5.3.1.1. did not need a warrant to obtain evidence because it would or could have been gone by the time they got a warrant

18.6. Search by consent

18.6.1. consent of person owning property

18.6.2. police officers believe they have consent of the person who owns the property

18.7. Automobile searches

18.7.1. only reasonable suspicion or probable cause constitute enough for vehicle search

18.7.2. do not need a warrant because they are mobile and differ greatly from other properties

18.7.3. can search passengers if there is reason to believe they are carrying unlawful substances or weapons

19. Miranda Rules

19.1. Miranda warnings must be read aloud before questioning of suspect can begin

19.1.1. right to remain silent

19.1.1.1. if a suspect chooses to remain silent he or she has to state that they are exerting their right to do so

19.1.2. statements can and will be used against them

19.1.3. right to an attorney

19.1.4. if they cannot afford an attorney one will be provided

19.2. apply only to custodial interrogations

19.2.1. someone has been taken into police custody

19.3. public safety exception

19.3.1. if public safety would be jeopardized police can immediately question without informing of rights

19.4. consequences of Miranda

19.4.1. officers may ask questions before arrest occurs

19.4.2. interrogation techniques used to encourage suspects to talk

19.4.3. permitted to use deception

20. This would connect to the Module 1 map in the police section; essentially everything on THIS map would be attached to the police subsection of Module 1

21. New Topic