Prehistoric Period

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Prehistoric Period by Mind Map: Prehistoric Period

1. Stone Age

1.1. Paleolithicum

1.1.1. Hunting and collecting food. Indonesia Ancient human lived nomads or always moving from place to place following the area with food (animal) and water. The migration affected with climate change (i.e. rainy season to dry season), natural disaster (i.e. flood, earthquake etc), animal threatened by other carnivor, threatened by humans ( hunting) etc. The tools that are made in paleothicum are mostly hunting tools. according to brain development that is still limited. The tools they make is made out of stone, wood, bones of animal that is still rough. These are the tools that are found in Indonesia in the paleolithic era Kapak Perimbas, Alat serpih ( flakes), alat tulang. Ancient human lived in a small group, and they communicate with each other by using body language, symbols, and simple words.

1.2. Mesolithicum

1.2.1. In mesolithicum ancient people still hunt and collect food, by using stone and also create tools from bone, shells. Now the ancient live in the gua gua payung (cave) near the water or the river. In mesolithic era they also found fire because of the development of their brain to adapt with the environment, the fire is used to from their body, keep the animals away, and to cook. At the end of this era they learned simple farming way. The tools are serpih bilah ( flakes ), alat tulang (pebble), and kapak genggam sumatera (sumatralith) Ancient people in the mesolithic era started to learn to divide a work, example men to hunt and women to collect and cook the food and taking car of the children. They also learn to paint as a tradition. they painted the painting in the walls of the cave. They also started to believe ancestors make ceremony.

1.3. Neolithicum

1.3.1. Ancient Indonesia people in neolithicum started to raise farm animals, like cows, chicken and pigs. They also started to make a farm by slash and burn. Now the live in one spot and started to make a simple house by using wood, bambu and hay. in neolithic era the tools in Indonesia are made out of stone but they make the tools into a special shape to farm and survive. The tools are beliung persegi, kapak lonjong, alat alat obsidian, mata panah gerabah, alat pemukul dari kulit kayu, jewelry ( necklace, bracelet) from stone and shell. in this era Indonesian people now helped each other to cut the forest, burn the bushes, plant the seeds, making earthenware ( gerabah ), hunting animal and fishing fishes. Now they use the dividing works method like man do the work with the strength while woman taking care of the children. They use a leader to manage each group. They believe that all the things in the earth has spirit or a magical power, ( mountain, Ocean, River ). it is called animism. they also believe that thing around human has power to give a benefit or endanger humans, for example Tombak, keris, gamelan can prevent disease or to fertilize the soil, it is called dynamism.

1.4. Megalithicum

1.4.1. In this era indonesian people live by planting with much higher level, they now understand how to irrigate the plants using more sophisticated tools. In this time Megalithic means Batu besar that why they have a strong believe of their ancestors by seeing the building such as man here, punden berundak, kubur batu, dolmen, arca batu, this building are made out of Big Rocks The Indonesian people strongly believe on respecting the ancestors because they think this all happen because of them

2. Metal age

2.1. Metal Age Timeline

2.1.1. Indonesian people in this era is the second batch of melayu austronesia from mongoloid trees are called as deutero melayu or melayu muda. People in this era associate with others by trading. It is accelerate the culture exchange. In this era there are a skillful people who can do special thing, example some people can make tools from metal, some people can make wood house, some people can make earthenware. Tools that are found in indonesia in this era are as follow tools from bronze such as nekara, moko, kapak perunggu bejana perunggu patung perunggu . Tools from iron and Tools from Earthenware.

2.2. Bronze Age

2.2.1. People in this era is a skillful to make things from metal. Only a few people with special skill could make a tools from metal. They lived in the village near the mountain, land or beach. There were a leader for each village. The start to trade things by exchanging the good (barter) . They belief that the spirit of their ancestor can protect them from dangers and will help them in current live. They always make ceremony to honoured the ancestor spirit. The tools that are used are Nekara used in the ceremony to praise the ancestor, Moko used in the ceremony to praise the ancestor,kapak perunggu: used in the ceremony to praise the ancestor and utensils, bejana perunggu used in the ceremony to praise the ancestor, patung perunggu used in the ceremony to praise the ancestor, gelang dan cincin perunggu used as jewelry

2.3. Copper Age

2.4. Iron Age

3. Indonesia Prehistoric Period

3.1. Indonesia Prehistoric period include a very long period from approximately 1.7 million years ago and ended in V M century. Indonesia's Prehistoric period ended when the kutai kingdom. The evidence is in a yupa shaped. This evidence was founded in the banks of the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan just entered the era of history. because the prehistoric period doesn't have legacies or written records, the information this age was received through fields.

3.1.1. At the pleistocene age or ice age where major climate change started happening, This caused Indonesia separated with australia and south east asia. Dutch scientist eugene dubois belief ancient people loved to stay in a tropical area. The first evidence to show first inhabitants was homo erectus fossils from java men the 2 million 5000 years ago. The scientist found human fossils, animals and stone tools such as knife, beliung, mata panah arang and burned bone which showed the level of the intelligent of the inhabitants