Teaching, Learning, & Development

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Teaching, Learning, & Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning, & Development

1. Classroom Management

1.1. Process-Outcome Research

1.2. Dynamic Classroom Management (DCM)

1.2.1. Five Global Principles

1.2.1.1. 1: Develop Caring, Supportive Relationships with and Among Students

1.2.1.2. 2: Organize and Implement Instruction in ways that Optimize Students’ Access to Learning

1.2.1.3. 3: Use Group Management Methods that Encourage Students’ Engagement in Academic Tasks

1.2.1.4. 4: Promote the Development of Students’ Social Skills and Self-Regulation

1.2.1.5. 5: Use Appropriate Interventions to Assist Students with Behaviour Problems

1.2.2. Positive Behaviour Support

1.3. Strategies to Nurture Three Fundamental Student Needs

1.4. Teacher Behaviours that Diminish Student Behavioural Problems

1.5. Set up Classroom Rules Early so Students Know Expectations

1.6. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

1.6.1. Race, Culture, Gender, and/or Socio-Economic Status

1.6.2. Critical Consciousness

1.6.3. Build a Culturally Responsive Practice

1.6.3.1. Aboriginal Education

1.6.4. Stereotype Threat (ST)

1.6.4.1. Generates Cognitive and Emotional Burden

1.6.4.2. Not Necessary to Believe the Stereotype

1.6.4.3. Can Negatively Affect the way an Individual Values their Chosen Domain of Study or Work

1.6.4.4. Prejudice

1.6.5. Effect of Parenting Style

1.6.5.1. Authoritarian

1.6.5.2. Permissive

1.6.5.3. Authoritative

1.6.5.3.1. Associated with Academic Success

2. Teacher Planning

2.1. Curricular Planning

2.1.1. Top-Down Approach

2.1.1.1. 1: Determining the Curricula for the Year and for Each Term

2.1.1.2. 2: Breaking the Curricula Down into Units that Extend Over Several Weeks

2.1.1.3. 3: Determining what will be Taught on a Daily Basis

2.1.2. Two Well-Proven Rules

2.1.2.1. 1: The Purpose of Each Lesson Will be Clear

2.1.2.2. 2: The Theme of Each Lesson will be Flexible enough to Accommodate Interruptions and Teachable Moments

2.1.3. Three Interrelated Elements

2.1.3.1. 1: Educational Purpose

2.1.3.2. 2: Learning Experiences

2.1.3.3. 3: Evaluation

2.2. Instructional Planning

2.2.1. Constructivist Perspective

2.2.1.1. 1: Each of my Lessons Contains Specific Learning Outcomes that Fall Under the Umbrella of Overarching Themes

2.2.1.2. 2: Students get to Construct their own Meaning and Knowledge Under my Watchful Guidance

2.2.1.3. 3: Students in my Classes Engage in Problem-Based Learning and Project-Based Learning

2.2.2. Student Self-Regulated Learning (SRL)

2.2.2.1. Metacognition

2.2.2.2. Strategic Approaches

2.2.2.3. Goal Motivation

2.2.3. Lesson Planning

2.2.3.1. 1: Basic Form

2.2.3.2. 2: Cognitive Verb

2.2.3.3. 3: Topical Description

2.3. Guiding Principles

2.3.1. Ten Best Practices

2.3.1.1. 1: Teach for Understanding, Appreciation, and Life Application

2.3.1.2. 2: Address Multiple Goals Simultaneously

2.3.1.3. 3: Employ Inquiry Models

2.3.1.4. 4: Engage Students in Discourse Management

2.3.1.5. 5: Design Authentic Activities

2.3.1.6. 6: Include Debriefing

2.3.1.7. 7: Work with Artifacts

2.3.1.8. 8: Foster Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning

2.3.1.9. 9: Be Aware of Trajectories, Misconceptions, and Representations

2.3.1.10. 10. Recognize the Social Aspect of Learning

2.3.2. Twelve Generic Guidelines

2.3.2.1. 1: Create a Supportive Classroom Climate

2.3.2.2. 2: Provide Opportunities to Learn

2.3.2.3. 3: Ensure Curricular Alignment

2.3.2.4. 4: Establish Learning Orientations

2.3.2.5. 5: Provide Coherent Content

2.3.2.6. 6: Facilitate Thoughtful Discourse

2.3.2.7. 7: Include Practice and Application Acitivities

2.3.2.8. 8: Scaffold Students' Task Engagement

2.3.2.9. 9: Teach Effective Strategies

2.3.2.10. 10: Include Cooperative Learning

2.3.2.11. 11. Utilize Goal-Orientated Assessment

2.3.2.12. 12. Establish Achievement Expectations

3. Educational Psychology

3.1. Reflective Practice

3.2. Commonplaces of Education

3.2.1. Schwab's Four Commonplaces

3.2.1.1. The Teacher

3.2.1.2. The Student

3.2.1.3. The Curiculum

3.2.1.4. The Classroom

3.3. Fundamental Topics

3.3.1. Learning and Cognition

3.3.2. Development

3.3.3. Social and Cultural Influences

3.3.4. Motivation

3.3.5. Behaviour and Classroom Management

3.3.6. Individual Differences

3.3.7. Assessment and Evaluation

3.3.8. Teaching and Instruction

3.3.9. Psychological Foundations of Curricula

3.4. Research

3.4.1. Psychologists

3.4.1.1. Johann Friedrich Herbart

3.4.1.1.1. Research-Focused Pedagogy

3.4.1.2. G. Stanley Hall

3.4.1.2.1. Public Lectures on Education

3.4.1.2.2. Child-Study Movement

3.4.1.3. William James

3.4.1.3.1. Talks to Teachers on Psychology

3.4.1.3.2. Develop Better Psychological Understandings of Teaching

3.4.1.3.3. Argued Against Measuring Individual Mental Faculties

3.4.1.4. Edward Lee Thorndike

3.4.1.4.1. Science-Will-Cure-All Mindset

3.4.1.4.2. Strict Quantitative and Experimental Research

3.4.1.4.3. Disdain for Actual School Practices

3.4.1.5. Behaviourism

3.4.1.5.1. Stimulus Response (SR) Theory

3.4.1.5.2. Ignored Contexts of Human Interaction

3.4.1.6. John Dewey

3.4.1.6.1. Classroom is the Perfect Laboratory

3.4.1.6.2. Functionalist Psychologist

3.4.1.6.3. Differentiation

3.4.1.7. Piaget

3.4.1.7.1. Schemas

3.4.1.7.2. Adaptations

3.4.1.7.3. 4 Stages of Cognitive Development

3.4.1.8. Vygotsky

3.4.1.8.1. Children’s Inner Language Drives their Reasoning Abilities and Builds Cognitive Structures

3.4.1.9. Chomsky

3.4.1.9.1. Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

3.4.1.10. Erikson

3.4.1.10.1. Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development

3.4.1.11. Kholberg

3.4.1.11.1. Six-Stage Theory

3.4.1.12. Bronfenbrenner

3.4.1.12.1. Ecological Theory

3.4.1.13. Brooks and Goldstein

3.4.1.13.1. Six Strategies that Teachers can use to Nurture these Fundamental Student Needs

3.4.1.14. Benjamin Bloom

3.4.1.14.1. Bloom’s Taxonomy

3.4.1.15. Stiggins

3.4.1.15.1. Stiggins’s Taxonomy of Achievement Targets

3.4.1.16. Sternberg

3.4.1.16.1. Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence

3.4.1.17. Gardner

3.4.1.17.1. Multiple Intelligences (MI)

3.4.2. Methods

3.4.2.1. The Way Research is Conducted

3.4.2.2. Validity and Reliability of Research

3.4.2.3. Three Features of Good Research

3.4.2.3.1. Systematic

3.4.2.3.2. Researcher Remains Objective

3.4.2.3.3. Testable

3.4.2.4. Common-Sense Explanations Sometimes Best

3.4.3. 5 Steps of Research

3.4.3.1. 1: Observation of Phenomena

3.4.3.2. 2: Formation of Questions

3.4.3.3. 3: Application of Research Methods

3.4.3.4. 4: Development of Guiding Principles

3.4.3.5. 5: Development of Theories

3.4.4. Approaches

3.4.4.1. Quantitative

3.4.4.1.1. Descriptive Research

3.4.4.1.2. Experimental Research

3.4.4.2. Qualitative

3.4.4.2.1. Idiographic Research

3.4.4.2.2. Ethnographic Research

4. Child and Adolescent Development

4.1. Developmental Influences

4.1.1. Developmental Principles Apply to All Students

4.1.2. Developmental Differences Exist even Among Children in the Same Grade

4.1.3. Developmental Principles Provide Teachers with Foundational Understandings of the Learning Process

4.2. Principles of Development

4.2.1. 1: Development Follows and Orderly and Logical Progression

4.2.2. 2: Development is a Gradually Progressive Process

4.2.3. 3: Development Involves Quantitative and Qualitative Changes

4.2.4. 4: Individuals Develop at Different Rates

4.2.5. 5: Development is a Combination of Nature and Nurture

4.3. Five Guiding Principles

4.3.1. 1: Teachers Must Teach Each Topic in its Respective Learning Progression

4.3.2. 2: Teachers Must Allow Time, and Preferably Practice, in Order for Academic Concepts to be Fully Understood

4.3.3. 3: Teachers Must Strive to Improve how Students know, not just how much they know

4.3.4. 4: Teachers must Consider that Within their Classrooms it is Normal and Expected that Some Children will Learn Faster or Slower than Others

4.3.5. 5: Teachers must Recognize their Ability to Either Positively or Negatively affect how much of each Child’s Academic and Social Potential is Realized

4.4. Intellectual Development

4.4.1. Listening

4.4.2. Speaking

4.4.3. Reading

4.4.4. Writing

4.5. Physical / Biological Development

4.5.1. Not Influenced by Educators

4.5.1.1. Genetically Predetermined Path

4.6. Cognitive / Learning Development

4.6.1. Skills and Concepts Learned Early in School Years

4.6.2. Significant Factors

4.6.2.1. 1: Meaningful Individual Differences in Language, Literacy, and Foundational Skills for Learning Emerge before Children begin Formal Schooling.

4.6.2.2. 2: The early Variability in Language, Literacy, and Foundational Skills for Learning is the Result of Many Factors

4.6.2.3. 3: The Early Schooling Experiences of Children are Highly Variable, in some Cases Exacerbating the Differences Established Prior to School Entry

4.6.2.4. 4: The Cumulative Impact of these Factors Means that Children Begin Formal Education with Vastly Different Preparation for Academic Learning

4.6.3. Executive Cognitive Functioning

4.6.3.1. Organize

4.6.3.2. Coordinate

4.6.3.3. Reflect

4.6.4. Innate Curiosity

4.6.5. Intelligence

4.6.5.1. Goal-Oriented

4.6.5.2. Adaptive

4.6.5.3. Three Most Important

4.6.5.3.1. 1: Fluid

4.6.5.3.2. 2: Crystallized

4.6.5.3.3. 3: Visual-Spatial Reasoning

4.6.5.4. As a Structure

4.6.5.4.1. Every Student has a Unique Cognitive Profile

4.6.5.5. As a Process

4.6.5.5.1. Interdependent Intelligence Processes that People use to Learn and Solve Problems

4.6.5.5.2. Analytical/Componential Intelligence

4.6.5.5.3. Creative/Experiential Intelligence

4.6.5.5.4. Practical/Contextual Intelligence

4.7. Special Education

4.7.1. High-Incidence Exceptionalities

4.7.1.1. Behavioural Disorders

4.7.1.2. Giftedness

4.7.1.3. Intellectual Disabilities

4.7.2. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities

4.7.2.1. Autism

4.7.2.2. Hearing / Visual Impairment

4.7.2.3. Multiple Disabilities

4.7.2.4. Serious Health Impairment

4.7.3. Inclusive Practice

4.7.3.1. Create a Safe Space

4.7.3.2. Know About the Different Disabilities in your Class

4.7.3.3. Differentiation

4.7.4. Individualized Education Program (IEP)

4.7.4.1. Psycho-Educational Assessment

5. Structures of Learning

5.1. Innate Drive to Organize

5.1.1. Organize our Behaviour and Thoughts into Coherent Systems

5.1.2. Naturally Look for Patterns

5.1.3. Schemas

5.2. Innate Drive to Adjust

5.2.1. Adaptation

5.3. Views in the Classroom

5.3.1. Student: Essence of School is Learning

5.3.2. Teacher: Essence of Student Learning is Motivation

5.3.3. Educational Psychology: Understanding Motivation is Key to Understanding why Things Happen in Classrooms

5.4. Enhance Learning

5.4.1. Zone of Proximal Development

5.4.2. Scaffolding

5.5. Three Components of Language Development

5.5.1. Function

5.5.2. Structure

5.5.3. Infinite Generativity

5.6. Personal and Social Development

5.6.1. Fundamental Psychological Needs

5.6.2. Making Choices

5.6.3. Emotionality

5.6.4. Self

5.6.5. Self-Concept and Self-Esteem

5.7. Moral Development

5.7.1. Heteronomous and autonomous Morality

5.7.2. Six-Stage Theory

5.8. Societal Infuences

5.8.1. 1: Adjusting to the Social Demands of School

5.8.2. 2: Getting Along with Others

5.8.3. 3: Conducting Ourselves According to the Routines and Conventions of School

6. Assessment

6.1. Backwards Design

6.1.1. Constructing Assessment to Accurately Represent what's being Taught

6.1.2. Assessment that Deliberately Measures Student Progress Toward Curricular Goals

6.1.3. Instructional Activities that Connect to and Build Understanding

6.1.4. What do I want my Students to Learn?

6.2. Homework

6.2.1. Linked to High Expectations for Student Academic Success

6.2.2. Smaller, Frequent Assignments over Large, Infrequent Assignments

6.3. Diagnostic

6.3.1. Prior to Instruction

6.4. Formative

6.4.1. Constantly Asking Circular Questions

6.4.2. Seat-Work, Participation, Homework, Short Quizzes, etc...

6.5. Summative

6.5.1. After Instruction

6.5.2. Graded

6.6. Design Process

6.6.1. Content Validity

6.6.2. Backwards Designed

6.6.3. Table of Specifications

6.6.4. Types of Questions

6.6.4.1. Selected-Response

6.6.4.1.1. T/F

6.6.4.1.2. Matching

6.6.4.1.3. Multiple Choice

6.6.4.2. Constructed-Response

6.6.4.2.1. Short Answer

6.6.4.2.2. Essay

6.6.5. Portfolio

6.6.6. Authentic Assessment

6.6.6.1. Activities

6.6.6.2. Problems

6.6.6.3. Questions

6.7. Standardized Testing

6.7.1. Same Questions for all Test Takers

6.7.2. Administered to all Individuals in the Same Fashion

6.7.3. Scored in a Systematic and Uniform Manner

6.7.4. Determine Student Performance in the Essential Elements of Schooling

6.7.5. Monitor Achievement Trends Over Time

6.8. Aptitude Testing

6.8.1. Assesses a Student’s Specific Cognitive, Social, and Behavioural Skills

6.8.2. Norm-Referenced

6.9. Achievement Testing

6.9.1. Criterion-Referenced

7. Instructional Practices

7.1. Three Guiding Principles

7.1.1. 1: Universal Instructional Design (UID)

7.1.2. 2: Teaching is Accomplished by Explaining, Demonstrating, or both

7.1.3. 3: Learning is a Highly Complex Funtion

7.2. Cognitive Strategies

7.2.1. Purposeful and Controllable Thinking Process that Actively Promotes the Understanding and Retention of Knowledge

7.2.2. Metacognition

7.3. How-People-Learn (HPL) Framework

7.3.1. Learner Centred

7.3.2. Knowledge Centred

7.3.3. Assessment Centred

7.4. Direct Instruction

7.5. Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-Based Learning