Teaching, Learning & Development

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Teaching, Learning & Development by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning & Development

1. Planning for the Upcoming School Year

1.1. My Guiding Principles

1.1.1. Become a reflective practitioner

1.1.1.1. I will remember to always consciously reflect on the effects my teaching has on my students so that I can continue to improve and be the best teacher I can possibly be to help all my students succeed!

1.1.1.2. Open-minded in how I view classroom environments, students learning, and my teaching methods

1.1.1.3. Embrace self-inquiry so that I'm able to continually grow and evolve my teaching practice

1.1.2. Evidence-based practices

1.1.2.1. My overall approach to teaching will always be informed by the most current research on effective teaching and learning

1.1.2.2. I will practice what I've learned from research in the classroom and will continue to adapt and develop my teaching methodologies based on what works best for me and my students.

1.1.3. Best practices and guidelines of good teaching (Educational Psychology textbook, pgs. 26-27)

1.1.4. My beliefs system...how will they impact my thoughts and actions in the classroom?

1.1.5. Schwab's 4 Commonplaces of Education

1.1.5.1. With my goal of teaching at the secondary level, I will make sure not to fall victim to focusing more on teaching the content, with little emphasis on the students needs and the environment.

1.1.5.2. The students needs and well-being, the learning environment, and the curriculum are all of equal importance for effective teaching and learning to occur.

1.2. Curricular Planning

1.2.1. Top-down approach

1.2.2. Backwards design

1.2.3. Curriculum guides

1.2.4. Assessment for learning: diagnostic assessment

1.2.4.1. What kinds of diagnostic assessments can I give to my students to determine what they already know so I get a better idea as to where I should start my teaching?

1.3. Instructional Planning

1.3.1. Teacher-centered approach

1.3.1.1. Direct Instruction

1.3.2. Student-centered approach

1.3.2.1. Constructivism

1.3.2.1.1. Students actively construct their own understandings and knowledge

1.3.2.2. Self-regulated learning

1.3.2.2.1. Autonomy

1.3.2.2.2. Meta-cognition

1.3.2.2.3. Complex and meaningful tasks

1.3.2.2.4. Collaborative and cooperative learning

1.3.2.2.5. Self-design, self-monitoring, self evaluation of academic activities

1.3.2.2.6. Greater intrinsic motivation

1.3.2.2.7. I'll do the best I can to help support my students in becoming self-regulated learners.

1.3.3. My approach to teaching will combine elements of both the teacher-centered and student-centered approaches, although I know adopting a constructivist teaching perspective will be more challenging for me and will require lots of work and practice!

1.4. School should be valued as art, students and teachers should want to do more not less

1.4.1. Teacher = coach = life-long learner

2. Development and Learning

2.1. Principles of Development

2.1.1. Follows an orderly and logical progression

2.1.2. Gradually progressive process

2.1.3. Involves qualitative and quantitative changes

2.1.4. Individuals develop at different rates

2.1.5. Influenced by genetics and the environment

2.1.6. "And, perhaps most important, teachers must recognize their ability to either positively or negatively affect how much of each child's academic and social potential is realized." (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 39)

2.1.6.1. This highlights the pivotal role that I have as a teacher in helping students to continue along a path of positive development as well as enhancing their learning. By understanding these principles, it will guide in me in knowing how and why students learn the way they do and make me more consciously aware of things I can do differently to support their learning and achievement.

2.2. Physical/Biological Development

2.2.1. Pre-frontal cortex

2.2.1.1. Takes 20 years to become fully functional

2.2.1.1.1. Important for me as a teacher, especially at the secondary level, to keep this in mind as I can't assume that adolescent students should know better if they engage in impulsive behaviors. I should help students become more aware of how to behave appropriately by engaging them in the process of creating acceptable rules/limitations so that they can make more informed decisions.

2.2.1.2. Decision-making and goal-setting

2.2.1.3. Controlling attention/impulsivity

2.2.1.4. Cognitive flexibility

2.2.1.5. Information-processing

2.2.1.6. Managing risk-taking

2.3. Cognitive/Learning Development

2.3.1. Best predictor of future academic success is the early mastery of essential numeracy and literacy skills

2.3.2. Executive cognitive functioning

2.3.2.1. Becomes more complex as students get older and become more cognitively capable

2.3.2.2. I can help guide students towards more complex learning processes by using or demonstrating them while teaching. This will provide students with more effective strategies for learning new and complex information, thereby enhancing their overall thinking and problem solving skills.

2.3.3. Innate curiosity

2.3.3.1. Driving force behind the learning process

2.3.3.2. Present information to students in interesting ways to peak their curiosity and promote learning.

2.4. Psychological Structures and Views of Learning

2.4.1. Cognitive

2.4.1.1. Piaget

2.4.1.1.1. Schemes/schemas: Organizing similar traits, thoughts, or actions into clusters of knowledge

2.4.1.1.2. Adaptation: innate drive to adjust to one's changing environment

2.4.1.1.3. Four Stages of Cognitive Development

2.4.1.1.4. Developed cognitive structures shapes language

2.4.1.2. Mental processes: thinking, remembering, understanding, knowing, planning, self-monitoring

2.4.1.3. Focuses on how information is received, organized, stored, and retrieved by the mind

2.4.1.4. Students bring knowledge to every new learning situation, and that affects what they learn from that situation.

2.4.1.4.1. The key to helping students engage in deeper levels of learning/thinking is to relate the information being taught to their prior knowledge. In this way, it will allow student's to process information in a way that makes it more meaningful and easier to understand.

2.4.1.5. Chomsky

2.4.1.5.1. Language-acquisition device

2.4.2. Socio-cultural/constructivist

2.4.2.1. Vygotsky

2.4.2.1.1. Zone of proximal development

2.4.2.1.2. Scaffolding

2.4.2.1.3. Social interactions develop cognitive structures for learning

2.4.2.1.4. Challenging-but-attainable tasks: Yerkes-Dodson Law

2.4.2.1.5. Inner language shapes development of cognitive structures

2.4.2.2. Bronfenbrenner

2.4.2.2.1. "Teachers are certainly in a position to provide an environment that welcomes, influences, and nurture's children social abilities" (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 65)

2.4.2.2.2. One of my main priorities as a teacher will be to establish positive, supportive relationships and model healthy relationship skills to help promote optimal social development.

2.4.2.3. Learning involves developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views

2.4.2.4. How can I adopt a constructivist approach to teaching?

2.4.2.4.1. Provide complex and challenging tasks that model real world situations

2.4.2.4.2. Utilize collaborative learning

2.4.2.4.3. Support students in becoming self-regulated learners by making them more aware of the knowledge-construction process

2.4.3. Behaviorist

2.4.3.1. Classical conditioning

2.4.3.2. Operant conditioning

2.4.3.3. Does not fully explain human experiences as it ignores the role of cognition in influencing behaviors

2.4.3.4. What actions can I take to minimize behavioral problems in the classroom?

2.4.3.4.1. Provide positive feedback

2.4.3.4.2. Be supportive of all students,

2.4.3.4.3. Provide learning tasks that students can be successful on

2.4.3.4.4. Maintain a low ratio of punitive to positive interventions

2.4.3.4.5. Look for and acknowledge positive behaviors rather than focusing on negative behaviors

2.5. Growth Mindset

2.5.1. Intelligence can be developed

2.5.2. Students CAN be taught to change their mindset...how can I accomplish this?

2.5.3. Leads to greater resiliency in the face of adversity and intrinsic motivation to succeed

2.5.4. The power of "yet"

2.5.5. I highly value the words spoken by Carol Dweck when she explains that it should be a basic human right that all children need to live in places that create growth, places filled with "yet". I'm going to strive to establish learning environments that support and encourage students to believe that they are capable of anything they set their mind to.

3. Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

3.1. Classroom Management

3.1.1. My biggest challenge as a new teacher entering the profession?

3.1.2. "Beginning teachers consistently perceive discipline as their most serious challenge: management problems continue to be a major cause of teacher burnout and job dissatisfaction..." (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 76)

3.1.2.1. How will I deal with problematic classroom behavior and implement an effective classroom management program?

3.1.3. Dynamic Classroom Management

3.1.3.1. Positive behavior support

3.1.3.1.1. All students have the skills to behave appropriately, they are just not using them properly

3.1.3.1.2. Important for me as a teacher to lead by example by modelling, encouraging, and supporting more desirable behavior

3.1.3.2. Classroom discourse research

3.1.3.2.1. Emphasizes proactive and explanatory teacher-student discourses that collaboratively establish class rules and routines

3.1.3.2.2. Overly explicit rules and routines as well as reminder mechanisms

3.1.3.3. Self-regulated behavior management

3.1.3.3.1. Important for me as a teacher to provide students with and engage them in explicit cognitive strategies for:

3.1.3.3.2. Work together with students to help them develop effective behavior management strategies

3.1.4. An integral component of effective teaching and learning: "there is equally strong evidence that nothing undermines academic learning as much as poorly managed classrooms and problematic behaviors..." (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 75)

3.2. Exemplary Learning Environments

3.2.1. Academic success is dependent on the learning environment

3.2.1.1. I've realized that the aspects of the physical classroom environment acts as the "third teacher" and should be treated as equally important as assessment and instructional methods.

3.2.1.1.1. Providing flexibility in the physical environment helps students engage in learning in a variety of ways as well as allowing me to interact with them in different ways.

3.2.1.2. "Environment will support or deter the student's quest for affirmation, contribution, power, purpose, and challenge in the classroom." (Tomlinson, 2003)

3.2.2. Requires good planning and good classroom management

3.2.2.1. Curriculum

3.2.2.1.1. When planning how I will teach the required curriculum to my students, I will remember to plan with the end goals in mind. What are the big ideas/concepts I want my students to take with them after they've taken my class?

3.2.2.2. Instructional strategies

3.2.2.2.1. By getting to know my students interests, learning profile, readiness, needs, and strengths/weaknesses, this will help guide me when planning the most effective instructional strategies to enable every student to learn and achieve success as best as I can.

3.2.3. Especially important for students with exceptionalities

3.2.3.1. Don't design the classroom environment for the "average" student: design for the "edges"

3.2.4. Tribes classrooms: an example

3.2.4.1. Attentive Listening

3.2.4.2. Show appreciation/no put-downs

3.2.4.3. Right to pass/right to participate

3.2.4.4. Mutual respect

3.3. Well-being in the classroom

3.3.1. Social & Emotional Learning

3.3.1.1. "Schools must now provide social, emotional intervention hand-in-hand with academic education...instilling what we have called a resilient mindset in students." (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 75)

3.3.1.2. By showing that I care about my students social and emotional well-being and teaching them social and emotional skills, this can help to enhance their resiliency as well as reduce problematic behaviors in the classroom.

3.3.2. Nurture three fundamental student needs

3.3.2.1. Autonomy

3.3.2.1.1. Self-regulation

3.3.2.1.2. Students must feel that they are expected and permitted to have ownership, responsibility, and accountability for their actions

3.3.2.2. Competence

3.3.2.2.1. Increased self-esteem

3.3.2.2.2. Increased self-efficacy

3.3.2.3. Belongingness and connectedness

3.3.2.3.1. Believing in students and treating them with respect

3.3.2.3.2. Collaborative learning

3.3.2.3.3. Establish positive relationships with students

3.3.2.4. If I can create a learning environment that allows students to fulfill these needs, they will be more motivated to learn and become more resilient.

3.3.2.4.1. The students most likely to succeed are those who become intrinsically motivated learners

4. Making Instructional Decisions

4.1. Universal Instructional Design

4.1.1. Physical spaces and objects that consider the needs of all students, especially those with disabilities

4.1.2. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind

4.1.3. More accessible and effective for all students

4.1.4. Three primary principles

4.1.4.1. Provide multiple means of representation

4.1.4.1.1. Perception

4.1.4.1.2. Language

4.1.4.1.3. Comprehension

4.1.4.2. Provide multiple means of action and expression

4.1.4.2.1. Physical action

4.1.4.2.2. Communication

4.1.4.2.3. Executive functioning

4.1.4.3. Provide multiple means of engagement

4.1.4.3.1. Interests

4.1.4.3.2. Sustaining effort and persistence

4.1.4.3.3. Self-regulation

4.1.5. Create learning environments that suit individual learners and maximize their ability to progress

4.2. Increased student motivation and engagement

4.2.1. Classroom tasks

4.2.1.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

4.2.2. Instructional practices

4.2.2.1. Teaching students learning and problem-solving strategies and how to use them effectively

4.2.2.2. Challenging students to demonstrate their understandings and abilities

4.2.3. Classroom relationships

4.2.3.1. Feeling that the teacher cares about social, emotional, and academic well being

4.2.3.2. Teacher interest in students' personal lives and support for autonomy during learning

4.2.4. Intrinsic motivation

4.2.4.1. What makes people do things when they don't have to do anything.

4.2.5. How People Learn Framework

4.2.5.1. Knowledge-Centeredness

4.2.5.1.1. Consult respective national, provincial, and district standards when deciding what to teach

4.2.5.2. Learner-Centeredness

4.2.5.2.1. Teaching decisions based on ongoing assessments of learners' current levels of understanding

4.2.5.3. Community-Centeredness

4.2.5.3.1. Create climates of shared learning and respect for learning

4.2.5.4. Assessment-Centeredness

4.2.5.4.1. Focus on ways that different teaching and learning goals affect the assessment of academic progress.

4.3. Direct instruction

4.3.1. Teaching small amounts of information and providing lots of practice to allow students to master basic facts and skills

4.3.2. Teacher-centered approach

4.3.3. Well-developed and carefully planned lessons with clear learning objectives

4.3.4. Guiding students through complex concepts/problems

4.3.5. I can use a DI approach when teaching my students specific sport-related skills, for example.

4.4. Student problem-solving

4.4.1. Student-centered constructivist approach

4.4.1.1. Inquiry-based learning

4.4.1.1.1. Students help teachers design comprehensive curricular tasks

4.4.1.1.2. Teacher as a coach, facilitator, leader, model

4.4.1.1.3. Students interpret, explain, hypothesize, and design and direct their own tasks

4.4.1.2. Problem-based learning

4.4.1.2.1. Complete tasks through collaborative learning

4.4.1.2.2. Teacher as a coach and facilitator

4.4.1.2.3. Students discuss problems, define what they know, identify information, data and set learning goals

4.4.1.3. Project-based learning

4.4.1.3.1. Students create specific educational products

4.4.1.4. With this instructional approach, I can help students become self-regulated learners by providing support for greater autonomy during learning activities.

4.4.2. Teaching students how to develop and apply new thinking strategies and procedures

4.4.3. Verbal protocol analysis

4.4.3.1. Students explain their own understandings and/or problem solving strategies

4.4.3.2. Self-feedback mechanism that allows for reflection and/or refinement of strategies

5. Knowing that the Students Know: Assessment for Learning

5.1. Purposes of assessment

5.1.1. Diagnostic

5.1.1.1. Determines students' current level of knowledge

5.1.1.2. Conducted before instruction begins

5.1.1.3. Establishes appropriate starting points for new learning

5.1.1.4. Enables teachers to plan instruction and assessments that are differentiated and personalized

5.1.2. Formative

5.1.2.1. Conducted frequently and in an ongoing manner during the course of instruction

5.1.2.2. Monitor progress, provide feedback, and differentiate instruction and assessment

5.1.2.3. Determines student's current level of understanding?

5.1.3. Summative

5.1.3.1. Conducted after instructional period

5.1.3.2. Determines how well students have learned the material

5.1.3.3. When I design tests/exam questions, I will make my students think and demonstrate their knowledge by using open-ended questions, rather than recall of facts

5.1.4. Authentic

5.1.4.1. Open-ended student-selected projects/assignments

5.1.4.1.1. Learning by design

5.1.4.1.2. Project-based learning

5.1.4.1.3. Problem-based learning

5.1.4.1.4. Knowledge building

5.1.4.2. Application of knowledge/skills to real-world problems

5.2. Assessment guides instruction

5.2.1. Backwards Design

5.2.1.1. Development of curricular units and lessons from the same instructional goals/learning objectives that are used in creating assessment tools.

5.2.1.1.1. Learning objectives

5.2.1.1.2. Enduring understandings

5.2.1.2. Assessment considerations must be put ahead of instructional considerations.

5.2.1.2.1. How can I design assessment tools to accurately determine effective student learning is occurring?

5.2.1.3. Core elements

5.2.1.3.1. Instructional activities that connect to and build understanding

5.2.1.3.2. Assessment that deliberately measures student progress toward curricular goals

5.2.1.3.3. Development of a variety of ongoing formal and informal assessment tools

5.2.1.3.4. Articulation of why certain assessments are appropriate and for what purpose

5.3. Characteristics of well-done assessments

5.3.1. Multiple opportunities to improve

5.3.1.1. "Assessment should focus on learning for improvement as opposed to simply measuring for "the mark" - Weighing the pig does not make it grow" Ruth Sutton

5.3.1.1.1. Shift in assessment culture

5.3.1.1.2. I will be a coach for my students, not a judge

5.3.2. Provide useful and timely feedback

5.3.3. No marks given until final attempt

5.3.4. Clear targets that students can understand

5.3.5. Students able to self and peer assess

5.3.6. Affirmation of capability

5.3.7. Students know where they stand and what to do to improve

5.4. Characteristics of poor assessments

5.4.1. No formative process

5.4.2. Unclear targets

5.4.3. No student involvement in the process

5.4.4. No discussion of results

5.4.5. One time shot

5.4.6. No exceptions or flexibility

5.4.7. Humiliation

5.5. Role of effective feedback

5.5.1. Progress-driven

5.5.2. Identifies things done well, what to improve, and what actions to take to improve

5.5.3. Provides comments rather than marks

5.5.4. Oral feedback better than written feedback

5.5.5. Increased confidence, motivation, and the development of a growth mindset

5.5.5.1. Greater resiliency

5.5.5.2. Fostering a growth mindset in students will be one of my primary goals and challenges that I will face as a teacher, especially at the secondary level.

6. Individual Differences

6.1. Intelligence

6.1.1. Goal-orientated adaptive behavior that impacts how, and how well students learn

6.1.2. Structures

6.1.2.1. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

6.1.2.1.1. "From the students' perspective, a teacher's adherence to MI theory can give them more learning opportunities specifically attuned to their particular ways of thinking and learning" (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 196)

6.1.2.1.2. MI Theory Assessment Tool

6.1.3. Processes

6.1.3.1. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

6.1.3.1.1. Analytical/Componential

6.1.3.1.2. Creative/Experiential

6.1.3.1.3. Practical/Contextual

6.1.4. How is it measured?

6.1.4.1. Aptitude tests

6.1.4.1.1. Predict ability to learn a skill or accomplish something with further education

6.1.4.2. Achievement tests

6.1.4.2.1. Measure what the student has learned or the skills they have mastered

6.1.5. Important for teachers to understand

6.1.5.1. The differences in students' intellectual abilities has a direct impact on how teaching will be conducted.

6.1.5.2. By having a better understanding of the differences evident in students' cognitive abilities, this can help to plan for appropriate teaching accommodations.

6.1.5.3. How will I adjust my teaching for a variety of different learning styles and intelligence levels?

6.2. Special education

6.2.1. Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities

6.2.1.1. High-incidence exceptionalities

6.2.1.1.1. learning disabilities

6.2.1.1.2. behavioral disorders

6.2.1.1.3. giftedness

6.2.1.1.4. intellectual disabilities

6.2.1.2. Low-incidence exceptionalities

6.2.1.2.1. autism

6.2.1.2.2. hearing and visual impairments

6.2.1.2.3. serious health impairment

6.2.1.2.4. multiple disabilities

6.2.2. Specialized instruction based on the proper assessment of students' abilities

6.2.2.1. Psycho-educational assessment

6.2.2.1.1. Individualized Education Plan (IEP)

6.2.2.1.2. Collecting data on current levels of intellectual, academic, and social functioning for the purpose of making educational decisions.

6.2.2.2. Change the system to fit the child

6.2.2.2.1. Differentiated Instruction

6.2.2.2.2. Universal Design for Learning

6.2.3. Inclusion

6.2.3.1. All students with exceptionalities should be educated within regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible

6.2.3.1.1. Including Students with Exceptionalities

6.2.3.2. All children can learn

6.2.3.3. Material being taught is made accessible to all students

6.2.3.3.1. Physical Access to Curriculum

6.2.3.3.2. Cognitive Access to Curriculum

6.2.3.4. Building an Inclusive Practice

6.2.3.4.1. Accepting of differences

6.2.3.4.2. Understand that learning and social differences exist along continua

6.2.3.4.3. Focuses strategic teaching interventions on students needs/strengths.

6.2.3.4.4. "Teachers who are prepared to teach students with exceptional needs become more skillful teachers of all students because they develop deeper diagnostic skills and a wider repertoire of strategies that are useful for many students" (Edmunds A., & Edmunds G., pg. 203)

7. Socio-Cultural Considerations

7.1. Diverse Learners

7.1.1. "Teachers attitudes and expectations, as well as their knowledge of how to incorporate the cultures, experiences, and needs of their students into their teaching, significantly influence what students learn and the quality of their learning opportunities" (Edmunds A., and Edmunds G. pg. 245)

7.1.2. Culture drives behavior

7.2. Critical Consciousness

7.2.1. Political values & beliefs

7.2.2. Ideological clarity

7.2.3. socio-cultural consciousness

7.2.4. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

7.2.4.1. Culturally Responsive Differentiated Instruction

7.2.4.1.1. "A culturally responsive pedagogy allows for discussion of difficult topics - like racism, discrimination, prejudice - and offers students of all ages the opportunity to engage in meaningful discussion that enhances learning" (Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, 2008)

7.3. Stereotype Threat (ST)

7.3.1. Fear that behavior will conform to existing negative stereotype

7.3.2. Can be brought on by innocuous comments

7.3.3. Students with strong ties to their identity group are most vulnerable

7.4. Socio-economic Status (SES)

7.4.1. Greatest impact on scholastic achievement

7.4.2. Effect of teaching style

7.4.2.1. Can offset the negative influences that SES has on student achievement

7.4.2.1.1. Authoritative approach

7.4.2.1.2. Provide extra help

7.4.2.1.3. Discuss rewards and benefits of finishing school and moving on to post-secondary education

7.5. Multicultural Education

7.5.1. Develop cultural understandings of-and mutual respect for-different beliefs, values, and social practices

7.5.2. Banks' Dimensions of Multicultural Education

7.6. Aboriginal Education

7.6.1. Risk factors

7.6.1.1. Early school failures

7.6.1.2. Moving from school to school

7.6.1.3. Lack of parent support

7.6.1.4. Lack of resources

7.6.1.5. Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies

7.6.1.6. Lining in remote communities

7.6.1.7. Special needs

7.6.2. Protective factors

7.6.2.1. Early intervention

7.6.2.2. Resiliency

7.6.2.3. Positive self-image

7.6.2.4. Family engagement

7.6.2.5. Community Involvement

7.6.2.6. Relevant Programming

7.6.2.7. Aboriginal role models

8. Standardized Achievement Tests

8.1. What is a "standardized" test?

8.1.1. Same questions for all test-takers

8.1.2. Administered with consistent instructions, under the same conditions, and within a specified time

8.1.3. Scored in a systematic and uniform manner

8.1.4. Used in Canada by provincial governments to determine whether students have acquired the knowledge, skills and attitudes provided by their education system

8.1.5. Criterion-referenced test

8.1.6. Summative assessment and evaluation

8.2. Fair or not?

8.2.1. Students with learning needs/disabilities allotted more time to write test as well as being allowed to write in different rooms

8.2.2. Students with reading difficulties can get questions read to them, which may provide an advantage or disadvantage compared to other students

8.2.3. Essay format for test may lead to differences between how markers grade the tests

8.2.4. "...the standardization of standardized tests is being eroded" (Poulsen, J. & Hewson, K.)

8.2.5. Confounding variables

8.2.5.1. Situational/Environmental Factors

8.2.5.2. Personal/Emotional Factors

8.2.5.3. Grade-Spread Requirement

8.2.5.3.1. "Standardized tests have to make a one-size-fits-all test that will not fit all because these tests will invariably contain a number of items that are not aligned with what's emphasized in a particular setting" (Popham, 1999)

8.2.5.3.2. SES is highly correlated to test scores

8.2.5.3.3. The important material that is required by the curriculum is often not tested because test makers try to find questions that only the top 50% of students will get right

8.3. Intended Purposes

8.3.1. Determine student performance in the essential elements of schooling

8.3.2. Monitor achievement trends over time

8.3.3. Identify and/or modify instructional methods

8.3.4. Evaluate educational programs

8.3.5. Hold districts, schools, and teachers accountable

8.4. Pros

8.4.1. Opportunity for comparison of educational outcomes across schools, provinces, or countries

8.4.2. Opportunity to assess strengths and weaknesses of the educational system

8.4.3. Assess accountability of educators and school systems

8.4.4. Provincial assessments provide a method to evaluate curricula and determine which school boards are meeting goals

8.5. Cons

8.5.1. Biased tests

8.5.2. Stressful for students and teachers

8.5.3. Results in teachers teaching to the test

8.5.4. Time-consuming

8.5.5. Does not enhance student learning or improve motivation to learn

8.5.6. Content of tests does not reflect curricular objectives

8.5.7. Does not adequately assess 21st century skills such as problem solving or critical thinking skills

8.5.8. Results are reported to educators too late to provide any instructional benefit to the students

8.6. Classroom and large-scale assessments should:

8.6.1. Be designed from the same curriculum framework

8.6.2. Address the same cognitive demands

8.6.3. Incorporate similar tasks

8.6.4. Use common standards for judging quality of work

8.6.5. Use the same benchmarks to represent learning over time

8.7. How can I prepare students to do well?

8.7.1. Teach well

8.7.2. Display positive attitudes about tests

8.7.3. Educate students about test formats and procedures

8.7.4. Simulate use of time limits and types of questions on standardized tests with my own tests

8.7.5. Teach students to be test-wise

8.8. How to use results effectively

8.8.1. Can help develop a better overall picture of academic progress

8.8.2. Can highlight areas of the curriculum and learning processes that are either well-understood or need further attention

8.8.3. Can provide professional opportunities to improve instruction