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Early Civilization Matrix by Mind Map: Early Civilization Matrix
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Early Civilization Matrix

Prehistoric

Politics

During the stone age, gender roles took place. Men took on the role of hunting, while women began to gather, cook, and give birth/nurture. (Koerner, 2010)

Society/Economics

"Division of Labor". Men hunted, women gathered. The specialization of traits between men and women first existed 250,000 years ago. (Progress Daily, 2011)

Technology

Fire(400,000-300,000 years ago). Spears made of antler, wood, and stone. Stone hammer (10,000 BC). (Lambert, n.d.)

Art

Petroglyphs, Geoglyphs, Megaliths, Stone Figures. (Ogborn, n.d.)

Music

Slowly evolving. Possible that music started with drum beats using stones and sticks to make noises. No documented writing of music prior to 4000 BC, when the Egyptians created harps and flutes. ("Pre-Renaissance Music: The Evolution Of Instruments And Theory", 2011)

Architecture

Caves, tents, and tent-like dwellings used as early as 30,000 years ago. Round houses located 8,000 BC. (History World, 2001)

Philosophy

Earliest documentation of philosophy in history during Greek times-sixth century BC. ("The Origins Of Western Thought", 1997-2002)

Literature

Cuneiform was on of the earliest documented forms. Made up of symbols representing objects. Symbols on clay tablets. Earlier forms not documented or proven. ("History Of Literature", n.d.)

Mesopotamian

Politics

Development of empires. One king. People took on roles within their groups. Rise of monarchies. ("The Light Of People Cultures: Mesopotamia", 2001)

Society/Economics

Trade and commerce began with agriculture and farming. Growing more than could be consumed, farmers began to trade the excess. Individuals began to trade what they had for what they needed. ("Ancient Mesopotamia", 2001)

Technology

Sickle, hoe, and plow for agriculture. Villages were created, and permanent shelters made. ("Mesopotamia And Technology", 2003)

Art

Sumerian sculptures such as those found at the Abu Temple from 2700 BCE. Art forms based on cones and cylinders. ("Mesopotamian Art", 1996-2010)

Music

Lyres and harps were found from 2500 BC. First written record of evidence of music images. ("Instrumental Music In Ancient Mesopotamia", 2011)

Architecture

The arc, column, and dome were created by early Mesopotamians. Bricks made of mud were used. ("Teacher Resource Center Ancient Mesopotamia: Architecture", n.d.)

Philosophy

Many Gods and Godesses. Four Creator Gods: An, Enlil, Nin-Khursag, Enki. An: Highest God, Sky-God. Enlil: Second Highest God, can produce storms, or help man. Nin-Khursag: Earth Goddess. Enki: Fourth God. Water God, patron of wisdom. (Gill, 2011)

Literature

Cuneiform tablets were found. Much of the cuneiform literature remains untranslated, while other forms were determined to be major religious findings. ("Mesopotamia ", n.d.)

Ancient Egyption

Politics

Revolved around the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh would have an unlimited amount of power over his people. The government was structured with people who reported directly to the Pharaoh. ("The Ancient Egypt Government", 2008)

Society/Economics

Farming and fishing were a major part of the Ancient Egyptian economy. Crops were traded and collected as taxes for the Egyptian government. Mining and small factories became popular to produce goods. ("The Ancient Egyptian Economy", 2001)

Technology

Very skilled with stone work. Were able to use tools such as drills, saws, an polishers to manufacture. ("Ancient Egyptian Stone Technology", n.d.)

Art

Mummy cases were built for pharaohs and important individuals. Relief art was popular. Reliefs were art forms that were carved in layers to create a raised look. Statues were also common art forms. (Nesima, n.d.)

Music

Music was a major part of Egyptian religion. Music played a part in temples, palaces, and tombs. Types of musical instruments were percussion, wind, and stringed. ("Music In Ancient Egypt", n.d.)

Architecture

Tomb building, pyramid building, and statues. Stones were used for stone walls and dwellings. Tombs were built for eternal resting places of Pharaohs and important individuals. Temples were also built for place of worship. ("Egyptian Architecture", 2001-2011)

Philosophy

Studied the stars and astronomy. Believed in the heavens and understood the relationship between the sun and the stars. (True Jr, n.d.)

Literature

Dates from Old Kingdom (2755-2255 BC) to Greco-Roman Period (after 332 BC). Religious literature such as hyms, mythological texts, mortuary texts. Stories, texts, and poems are included in Ancient Egyptian literature. ("Ancient Egyptian Literature", n.d.)

Archaic Greek

Politics

Ancient Greece was composed of multiple self-governing states. No singe government ruled all of Ancient Greece. Political standing was determined by sex, age, foreign status, and slave status. Male citizens always had political rights. (Discovery Channel, 2010)

Society/Economics

Agriculture was difficult due to geographic necessities such as rich soil. Sailing became essential for the economy of Archaic Greeks. These activities included fishing, trading, and piracy. Sheep-herding and hunting were also a part of the Greek economy. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Technology

Talos, automatic doors, steam engines, and water and air pumps. Talos was an operational robot. (Sfetsos, 2002)

Art

Art during the Archaic period began to take on a more natural approach that may have been influenced by Egypt. Greek artists worked in jewelry making, metalworking, ivory carving, gem cutting, etc. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art , 2000-2011)

Music

Lyric poetry and short songs with musical instruments. Poems composed to be sung by a chorus on sacred or ritual occasions. (King, n.d.)

Architecture

Doric and Ionic principles. Doric principle includes columns with no base and flutes. In the Ionic, bases support columns and flutes are vertical. Columns were very popular in the Archaic Greek period. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-2011)

Philosophy

In Ancient Greece, only free men born in the city were allowed to vote. These same men were able to enter into political debates. Some of the icons include Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates. ("Philosophy And Polotics Of Ancient Greece", 2002-2011)

Literature

Poetry was created far before literature and writings. Poetry was intended for singing and reciting. Writing was not experienced until after seventh century BC. (Greek Literature, 2011)

Aegean

City-states continued to exist; however, much of the power fell under Roman control. Centered in military empires. Alexander the Great took power and had the goal of merging Greeks and Asians together

Politics

Two different civilizations: Minoan and Mycenaeans. King Minos ruled the Minoan civilization, while King Agamemnon ruled the Mycenaean civilization. (Guisepi, 1998)

Society/Economics

Exported food, wine currants, wool cloth, herbs, etc. Imports included stones, ivory, copper, silver, gold, etc. ("History Of Minoan Crete", 2003-2011)

Technology

Agriculture was an important part during the Bronze Ages. Much of the art found for this time period included many figures of the oxen and provided evidence of the first plow system used during this time period. (Pullen, 1992)

Art

"The Bronze Age" came from the Aegean times. Aegean art was very vivid and natural. Pottery, jewelry, and sculptures were very popular forms of art. ("Art Of Aegean Bronze Age Cycladic, Minoan And Mycenaean Art", 1999-2007)

Music

Music consisted of stringed instruments such as the harp, lyres, wind instruments, symbols, shell trumpets, and reed instruments. (Younger, 1998)

Architecture

Palaces were popular in the Mycenaean cultures. Palaces were made of piled up stones. The Minoan palaces were quite opposite and were of a more open layout. Tombs and burial chambers were also popular during these times. ("Art Of Aegean Bronze Age Cycladic, Minoan And Mycenaean Art", 1999-2007)

Philosophy

The Minoans worshiped the mother goddess. The Greek mythology of the labyrinth. (Guisepi, 1998)

Literature

It was originally thought that Mycenaeans did not have a written language; however, it was later discovered that writings were found on clay tablets. The Greek dialect was later confirmed. (Guisepi, 1998)

Classical Greek

Politics

The democracy was created by Cleisthenes. In this democracy, each man would have one vote in an Assembly meeting. The goal of the democracy was for power to be gained. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Society/Economics

After 479 BC, Athens became the primary dominant factor of Greece for its economy. The city became a wealthy imperial power. The treasury was transferred, making Athens the political and economic super power. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art , 2000-2011)

Technology

Some major technological advances during the Classical period were in military equipment. These were the Phalanx and the Trireme ship. (Lahanas, n.d.)

Art

Greek artists focused on harmony and clarity. Sculptures were very popular and portrayed the human body either in clothing, or in a natural state. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art , 2000-2011)

Music

Music was an essential part of the Greek culture. Music was largely used at social gatherings such as weddings, religious festivals, funerals, banquets. The lyre, the kithara, and the aulos were primary instruments during this time. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art , 2000-2011)

Architecture

The Archaic and Classical Greek periods share similar principles, and actually lacked strong differences. In the Classical period, Greeks actually began to make permanent theaters out of stone. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Philosophy

Popular philosophers for the Classical Period were The Sophists, Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates. Logic and ethics were main focal points for philosophers within this period. (Stamatellos, 1997-2006)

Literature

The Classical Period of Greece held much for literature. Dramas and comedies became common genres of literature during this period. The Classical Period literature came to a close with the deaths of Aristotle and Demosthenes. ("The Classical Period", 2005)

Hellenistic

Politics

Alexander the Great took power. He hoped to combine Greek and Asian cultures. He has an idea of an multinational empire. City-states continued; however, much of the power was given to Rome. Politics focused on military powers. (Guisepi, 1992)

Society/Economics

Alexander the Great's conquer created a uniform economy. Economy was based on agriculture, and stockbreeding, which was very similar to the Classical period. Iron, copper, and other metals continued to be imported.("The Economy Of The Hellenistic Period ", n.d.)

Technology

Euclid's elements became standard. Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth by measuring the shadow of two vertical sticks with one in Alexandria and one in Syene. ("History Of Greece: Hellenistic", 2003-2011)

Art

Artists focused on dramatic posing and sweeping lines, shadows, and emotions. Artists worked toward a more realistic way of representing the human figure. ("Greek Art: The Hellenistic Period", 2002-2011)

Music

The lyre and the cithara were parts of Hellenistic times. Were played as part of melodies with other instruments and/or singing. Only played solo by very achieved and experienced individuals. (Cheney, n.d.)

Architecture

Temples continued to be built. Forts, theaters, gymnasias, and other public buildings also began to flourish. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Philosophy

Philosophy regressed during this period. Individuals began to be skeptic of philisophical thoughts and ideas. Citizens rejected reason all together. Philosophers focused on the salvation of man and easing the pain of evils. ("Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature And Art", n.d.)

Literature

Literature was dominated by dramatic poetry, biographies, and historians. Dramatic poetry was almost always comedic. ("Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy, Literature And Art", n.d.)

Roman

Politics

The Roman government was very similar to that of the Greeks. The Roman Empire was under one-man rule until the beginning of the first century BC. This eventually changed into a form of a republic. The balance of power of the government was spread among three branches. (UNRV.com , 2003-2011)

Society/Economics

Slave-based economy. Agriculture and trade dominated the Roman economy. Grains, olives, and grapes were a major part of the Roman Agriculture. Olive oil and wines were also manufactured within the Roman Empire. Trade boomed among Europe, Asia, and Africa. (UNRV.com, 2003-2011)

Technology

Aqueducts, sewage systems, and the Roman amphitheater were each major technological achievements. The aqueducts brought water into the city of Rome and even supplied water to some of the fountains. Romans would join within the amphitheater to seek entertainment. The sewage system enabled the city to continue to grow and be able to release dirty water from the city. ("Roman Technology", n.d.)

Art

Murals and large wall paintings were popular forms of art within Ancient Rome. Statues, portraits, and sculptures were also important art forms. These art forms were often influenced by surrounding cultures, and also by Gods and Goddesses within this time period. ("The Art Of Ancient Rome", n.d.)

Music

Romans took musical influence from those they conquered. Music in this time period was generally performed and associated with the military and military ceremonies, the theater, religious practices, rituals at public occasions. ("The Music Of Ancient Rome", n.d.)

Architecture

Architecture was an essential part of the Roman period. Arches and columns of many different shapes and sizes became fluent within the city. Bridges and building also became a part of the Roman period. ("The Art Of Ancient Rome", n.d.)

Philosophy

By 50 BC, Romans began writing philosophy. Much of the Roman philosophy mocked Greek philosophy, and much of it was simply translated from Greek directly into Latin. Lucretius was one of the first Roman philosophers who took part in writing poetry. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Literature

Roman literature began as dramas. These dramas began with no song or dialogue. Later, Rome began to see both comedies and tragedies, which were played out in a plot written by Roman writers. (Roman Colosseum, 2008)

Early Christian

Politics

Early Christians fell within the boundaries of the Roman Empire. Citizens within the Roman Empire generally made offerings to the state Gods and Godesses. Early Christians refused to make such offerings; therefore, putting themselves and others at risk for not abiding by the rules within the Roman Empire. ("Early Christian History", n.d.)

Society/Economics

Since much of Early Christianity was underground the economy and society was the same as the Roman Empire. Because Christianity was not an acceptable religion, individuals remained a part of the Roman Empire. The economy of the Roman Empire was slave-based. Agriculture and trade remained the focal point of the Roman economy. Grains, olives, and grapes were the primary source of agriculture. (UNRV.com, 2003-2011)

Technology

Since Early Christianity was mainly underground and hidden for the most part, the technology used was very similar to that of the Roman Empire, since Early Christians were in fact a part of Early Rome. Aqueducts, sewage systems, and amphitheaters were some of the greatest technological achievements of the Roman Empire. ("Roman Technology", n.d.)

Art

Early Christian art included decorations of the hidden places of worship. Early artists focused in portraying the Christian beliefs and encompassing the spirituality of the Christian religion versus the artistic details themselves. (Huntfor.com, 1999-2007)

Music

Early Christian music was discreet, as non-christian followers disapproved. Early Christian music came in the form of chants versus loud singing to remain discreet. (Shaked, 2007)

Architecture

Early Christianity began as an underground worship, and was originally not seen as a religion at all. People who wished to practice Christianity had to do so in secret. It wasn't until later years that Christianity was identified as an actual religion. Early architecture was primarily for churches. This included basilical church. The churches were primarily made of regular brick and marble. ("Early Christian Architecture", n.d.)

Philosophy

Early Christianity was derived from many subcultures within the Roman Empire. The Christian church was a place for new ideas. Greek philosophy had a part in Early Christian philosophy, as most of the scriptures and early literature were translated from Greek. Since the Christian language branched off from Greek ideas and mythology, the early ideas were similar. (Graham, 2011)

Literature

Early Christian literature included the New Testament, which was a collection of these writing. This included documentation of the early movement: the words of Jesus, the death of Jesus, post-resurrection, etc. (Troxel, 2009)

Byzantium

Politics

The throne was often occupied by individuals who were incapable ruling. Political assassinations were common. Administration was properly organized, and was able to work even with the incapable beings that inhabited the throne. Taxes were collected from citizens. ("Byzantine Period-Political And Cultural Achievements", n.d.)

Society/Economics

The Byzantine Empire never went bankrupt. Even the peasants within the empire never sank to a low compared to others within that time. Upper and middle classes experienced lavish living style that have remained high above others. The economy and trade flourished. ("Byzantine Period-Political And Cultural Achievements", n.d.)

Technology

Obtained many of the technological ideas and thoughts of the Roman Empire. Military technology continued to grown and improve in the Byzantine period. Horses in the military were dressed with armor for protection. Horse riders were also dressed in armor, but held bow, lance, spear, sword, and dagger for battle. The Greek Fire was also created. The Greek Fire was essentially a liquid fire similar to napalm. (Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. , 2000 - 2011)

Art

Religious mosaics and icons were popular within the Byzantine period. Sometimes these religious art pieces were not allowed within the empire. The art work was remarkable and highly religious, which was not always an appeal in Western cultures. ("Byzantine Period-Political And Cultural Achievements", n.d.)

Music

Music common in the Byzantine period were Christian chants. These chants remained in the Greek language. The chants encompassed inspiration from the classical period, Jewish music, and monophonic vocals. (Conomos, n.d.)

Architecture

Architecture was also a large advancement in the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine people perfected the dome structure. The Hagia Sophia was also created in the Byzantine period. (Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd. , 2000 - 2011)

Philosophy

Philosophy and religion were hot topics during this time period. People had many questions regarding the differences between Jesus Christ and the Gods that belong to the Greek and Roman religions. People speculated these belief systems and were often times banned from the Church and empire if they were unwilling to accept the right word. ("Byzantine Period-Political And Cultural Achievements", n.d.)

Literature

The literature during this period remained strong; however, new profound works were not a part of the Byzantine empire. ("Byzantine Period-Political And Cultural Achievements", n.d.)

Islamic

Politics

Totalitarianism. Seeks total political control. Not solely religious movement. Seeks domination and complete power to have followers by the masses.

Society/Economics

The Islamic economy was primarily dependent upon trade. The Silk Road was used to conduct trade between China, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Iraq, and Syria. The Silk Road was a route traders took to transport goods from one region to another. Silk, cotton, paper, jade, silver, gold, etc were all important matters of trade. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Technology

The piston pump was created in 1206 AD. The pump enabled water to be brought from underground to the surface by means of pressure. ("History Of Science And Technology In Islam ", n.d.)

Art

Islamic art was primarily in pottery form. Potters used metal-based glazes on their pottery. After the use of the metal-based glazes, potters began to try out different forms of glazes. (Carr, 2008-2011)

Music

Islamic music took on a multi-cultural approach between 661-750 AD. Arab music kept many local influences, yet a new form arose incorporating new influences and musical instruments. (Racy, n.d.)

Architecture

In the late 600's AD, the Arabs began to build mosques and palaces. (Carr, 1998-2011)

Philosophy

Literature

Islamic literature was not always existent. Arabic was primarily spoken, and was rarely written until after 1000 AD. Prior, Arabic literature was non-existent. Only short inscriptions on stone were found. (Carr, 1998-2011)