EDUC5015 - Teaching, Learning, and Development

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EDUC5015 - Teaching, Learning, and Development by Mind Map: EDUC5015 - Teaching, Learning, and Development

1. Key Takeaway From Week 8: Standardized tests are mandatory, but I am not convinced they benefit me or my students in any given year.

2. Key Takeaway From Week 7: A fair and equitable teaching practice is the very foundation for being a professional teacher. Inclusivity is necessary at all times

3. Key Takeaway From Week 6: All students are able to learn and succeed, but not all in the same way or on the same day

4. Key Takeaway From Week 5: A fair assessment that reflects the teacher process is essential to continued, effective learning

5. Key Takeaway From Week 4: Differentiated instruction is a must if all students are to reach their full potential

6. Key Takeaway From Week 3: All students learn differently, but there are common aspects that benefit all students. A regular classroom structure is the most important thing that all students need.

7. Key Takeaway From Week 2: Intelligence can be developed with a growth mindset. Process is the most important aspect of education and learning

8. Key Takeaway From Week 1: There is a lot of planning that happens before the school year. Teachers need to prepare for a wide range of students every year

9. 1) Early August - Planning for the Upcoming School Year

9.1. Guiding Questions

9.1.1. What is the purpose of school? Seth Godin

9.1.2. What motivates students to do well in school?

9.1.3. How do we promote learners' autonomy?

9.1.4. How can I make math class more fun?

9.1.5. What is the best way to analyze and reflect on my own teaching practice?

9.2. Educational Psychology

9.2.1. Best described as the understanding of the psychological principles that govern the interactive human behaviours involved in the teaching and learning process.

9.2.2. Commonplaces of education teacher x student x topic x setting

9.2.3. Foundational topics 1) Learning and cognition 2) Development 3) Social and Cultural influences 4) Motivation 5) Behaviour and classroom management 6) Individual differences 7) Assessment and evaluation 8) Teaching and instruction 9) Psychological foundations of curricula

9.2.4. Steps in the research process 1) Observation of Phenomena An educational phenomenon does not fit within current explanations. 2) Formation of Questions Research questions are generated. 3) Application of Research Methods Research methods reveal relationships between phenomena. 4) Development of Guiding Principles Similar research outcomes regarding the same topic become guiding principles. 5) Development of Theories Collections of principles about related phenomena merge into theories.

9.2.5. Fundamental approaches to research Quantitative Descriptive Experimental Qualitative Idiographic Ethnographic

9.3. Teacher Planning

9.3.1. Curricular Planning The learning experiences and goals that teachers develop for their classes in light of students’ characteristics and the teaching context. Three elements 1) Educational Purpose 2) Learning Experiences 3) Evaluation

9.3.2. Instructional Planning teacher-centred approach vs. student-centred approach

10. 2) Late August - Considering Child and Adolescent Development

10.1. Key Ideas

10.1.1. Classrooms should focus on what children can do, and not the things they can't do. Adora Svitak

10.1.2. Classrooms should sound more like a discussion than a lecture.

10.1.3. Instead of praising intelligence, praise hard work and effort.

10.1.4. Use "not yet" instead of "wrong" or "fail" Carol Dweck

10.1.5. Always promote a growth mindset in the classroom

10.2. Developmental Influences

10.2.1. Development is specifically defined as a series of physical, cognitive, and social changes that occur within children.

10.2.2. Principles of Development 1) Development follows an orderly and logical progression. 2) Development is a gradually progressive process, but it does not necessarily occur at a constant rate. 3) Development involves quantitative and qualitative changes. This means that in addition to knowing more about something, individuals learn to think differently about these very same things. 4) Individuals develop at different rates. 5) Development results from genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture), with genetics setting the limits of developmental potential and the environment determining how much of that potential is realized.

10.2.3. Teachers must recognize their ability to either positively or negatively affect how much of each child’s academic and social potential is realized.

10.3. Six most influential developmental theorists

10.3.1. Piaget explained how cognitive development and learning take place

10.3.2. Vygotsky emphasized why it is important to allow students to construct their own knowledge Zone of proximal development

10.3.3. Chomsky described how and why language develops

10.3.4. Erikson focused on how an individual’s sense of self develops

10.3.5. Kohlberg clarified how our sense of right and wrong (morality) develops

10.3.6. Bronfenbrenner outlined how different spheres of influence affect an individual’s social development

11. 3) First Week of School - Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

11.1. Key Ideas

11.1.1. Information has become a commodity in the digital internet age Students who succeed in a knowledge-focused school may not succeed in the information age. Tony Wagner

11.1.2. We designed our education system for the "average student", even though no student is average in every area All students have "jagged" learning profiles, i.e., strengths and weaknesses in different areas Memory Language Knowledge Reading Vocabulary Curiosity Perceptual Cognitive Interest

11.1.3. Average destroys talent If a grade 10 science textbook assumes that the student is at a great 10 reading level, a great science student who struggles with reading will struggle to read the textbook and miss out on proper development. Todd Rose

11.2. Dynamic Classroom Management

11.2.1. Five global principles of effective classroom management 1) Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students. 2) Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning. 3) Use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic tasks. 4) Promote the development of students’ social skills and self-regulation. 5) Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems

11.2.2. Three fundamental understandings and implications 1) Positive behaviour support 2) Classroom discourse research 3) Self-regulated behaviour management

11.2.3. Results in more positive student behaviours, enhanced student psychological security, and better teaching and learning.

11.3. Three Fundamental Student Needs

11.3.1. 1) to belong and feel connected and to sense that teachers believe in them and will treat them with respect

11.3.2. 2) to feel autonomous and possess a sense of self-determination and to feel they are expected and permitted to have ownership, responsibility, and accountability for their actions

11.3.3. 3) to feel competent, successful, and accomplished

12. 4) Mid-September - Making Instructional Decisions

12.1. Zoe Brannigan's Classroom

12.1.1. Desks set up in small groups rather than rows

12.1.2. Children get a chance to Skype other children from around the globe

12.1.3. Constructivist lessons: children construct their own learning through problem-based learning The classroom is not just a teacher lecturing, but students working and learning together and teaching each other

12.1.4. Small groups work together on certain topics

12.1.5. Teacher gets a chance to work one-on-one with students while other students work in groups

12.1.6. Students get a say in what projects they work on

12.1.7. Universal Design for Learning Three guiding principles 1) Provide multiple means of representation 2) Provide multiple means of action and expression 3) Provide multiple means of engagement

12.2. Determining what to teach

12.2.1. Diagnostic assessment What do students know at the start of the course?

12.2.2. Backwards Design 1) What do I want my students to learn? 2) How will I determine whether or not they have learned? 3) What will I teach? 4) How will I teach?

12.2.3. Common Thread of Learning Objectives Philosophical objectives found in mission statement Global objectives found in curriculum guide Broad learning objectives used in unit plans Specific learning objectives Assessment questions Topical unit and lesson plans Instructional methods

12.2.4. Bloom's Taxonomy Six cognitive objectives 1) Knowledge 2) Comprehension 3) Application 4) Analysis 5) Sythesis 6) Evaluation

12.2.5. Stiggins’s Achievement Targets Knowledge Declarative knowledge: facts, terms, concepts, and generalizations Procedural knowledge: procedures or problem-solving methods Reasoning Process of answering questions through analytical problem-solving Skills Abilities required to put procedural knowledge to use in a fluent fashion and in the appropriate context Products Student creations that reflect current skill and ability levels Attitudes and Dispositions Interests in certain topics; the desire to learn more about a topic

12.2.6. Universal Instructional Design 1) Create a welcoming classroom environment that emphasizes academic and behavioural success. 2) Determine the essential academic components to be taught/learned and the preferred behavioural outcomes. 3) Provide students with both clear expectations for learning and feedback about their learning progress and social conduct. 4) Implement a variety of topically suitable instructional methods. 5) Provide a variety of ways for students to demonstrate what they have learned (assessment). 6) Make appropriate use of technology to enhance learning. 7) Encourage and initiate teacher–student and student–student discourses about learning topics/tasks and behavioural expectations.

12.2.7. How People Learn Framework Knowledge-Centredness What should be taught, why is it important, and how should this knowledge be organized? Learner-Centredness Who learns, how, and why? Community-Centredness What kinds of classroom, school, and school-community environments enhance learning? Assessment-Centredness What kinds of evidence can students, teachers, parents, and others use to see if effective learning is really occurring?

13. 5) Late September - Assesing Student Progress

13.1. Key ideas

13.1.1. Understanding by Design We should teach and assess for understanding and tranfer, and also for critical thinking, creativity, and working with others What's most worth understanding are the large, transferable concepts and processes within and across subjects. Just because students know doesn't mean they understand Think big, start small

13.1.2. How can I teach math in a way that makes it more interdisciplinary?

13.1.3. How do I incorporate storytelling into my lessons to make learning more meaningful to the students?

13.1.4. Learning Styles Visual Auditory Kinesthetic

13.2. Interplay between Teaching, Learning, and Assessment

13.2.1. Curriculum Requirements Teacher refers to curriculum guide to determine what students must learn.

13.2.2. Assessment Decisions Teacher decides how students’ learning of the material will be assessed.

13.2.3. Instructional Content Teacher decides what must be taught to students in order for them to learn the material that will be included in the assessment activities.

13.2.4. Instructional Methodology Teacher decides on the types of instructional methods that will be used to teach the content.

13.3. Three purposes of assessment

13.3.1. Diagnostic assessment before the instruction

13.3.2. Formative assessment during the instruction

13.3.3. Summative assessment after the instruction

13.4. Selected-response vs. constructed response assessment

13.5. Criterion-based vs. norm-based assessment

14. 6) Early December - Individual Differences: Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

14.1. Key ideas

14.1.1. Ken Robinson Intelligence is diverse, dynamic, and distinct We think visually, kinesthetically, abstractly, in movement, etc. We all have different abilities in these areas Intelligence is interactive. Creativity comes about through the interaction of the different ways of seeing things. Everyone is intelligent in their own way, even if it's not academically/book smart. Learning For All

14.1.2. Special education Nothing more than good teaching that is prepared and conducted slightly differently in order to accommodate the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities. High-incidence exceptionalities Low-incidence exceptionalities They sent me to gifted class in grade 6 and I lost all my motivation to work hard because we were all told we were smart all the time.

14.2. Carroll’s Hierarchical Model of Intelligence

14.2.1. Fluid intelligence

14.2.2. Crystallized intelligence

14.2.3. General memory and learning

14.2.4. Broad visual perception

14.2.5. Broad auditory perception

14.2.6. Broad retrieval capacity

14.2.7. Broad cognitive speediness

14.2.8. Processing speed (decision speed)

14.3. Intelligence as Structures

14.3.1. Theory of Multiple Intelligences 1) Linguistic 2) Logical–Mathematical 3) Spatial 4) Musical 5) Bodily– kinesthetic 6) Interpersonal 7) Intrapersonal 8) Naturalistic

14.4. Intelligence as Processes

14.4.1. Analytical/Componential intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

14.4.2. Creative/Experiential intelligence

14.4.3. Practical/Contextual intelligence

14.5. Inclusion model of special education

14.5.1. In Canada we try to include students with special needs into the ordinary classrooms to the greatest extent possible "What's needed by some is good for all"

14.6. Individualized Education Program

14.6.1. outlines a student’s individualized educational goals, the services that a student with exceptionalities will receive, the methods and strategies that will be used to deliver these services to ensure that goals are met, and the placement in which all of these will be provided Six Phases 1) Identification 2) Diagnostic Instruction 3) Referral 4) Assessment/IEP 5) Educational intervention 6) Evaluation of student progress

15. 7) Early February - Socio-Cultural Considerations

15.1. Key Ideas

15.1.1. Chimamanda Ngozi The importance of getting multiple perspectives about people and their culture When you learn about someone's culture from only one perspective, you start to form stereotypes and narrow-minded opinions When you hear about a group of people in one way over and over again, that is what they become in your mind even if it's not the whole picture

15.1.2. Julien S. Bourrelle How can we connect different cultures? How do we stop using our own cultural lens when we judge the intentions of others' actions?

15.1.3. Strategies for working with diverse learners How do we close the achievement gap that persists by race/ethnicity, socio-economics, language, and disability? 1) Demonstration of high expectations 2) Implementation of culturally relevant instruction 3) Establishment of caring relationships 4) Parent and community involvement hj

15.2. Teaching Diverse Learners

15.2.1. 1) When teachers use knowledge about the social, cultural, and language backgrounds of their students when planning and implementing instruction, the academic achievement of students can increase.

15.2.2. 2) Most teachers are of European descent from middle-class backgrounds and speak mainly English, while many of their students are from racial and ethnic minorities, live in poverty, and speak a first language other than English;

15.2.3. 3) Teachers need to be aware of the embedded structural conditions that determine the disparate allocation of educational opportunities within schools

15.2.4. 4) Teachers must take action to alter the disparate educational opportunities afforded to groups of students who differ from one another racially, culturally, and socio-economically.

15.2.5. 5) Teachers need to be aware of family and community values, norms, and experiences so they can help students across the boundaries that sometimes exist between home and school

15.3. Critical Consciousness of Teachers

15.3.1. political values and beliefs

15.3.2. an ideological clarity

15.3.3. a socio-cultural consciousness

15.4. Stereotype Threat

15.4.1. the fear, existing either in your own eyes or in the eyes of others, that your behaviour will confirm an existing negative stereotype about your identity group. Leads to prejudice and discrimination

15.5. Socio-Economic Status

15.5.1. indicates an individual’s social class based on education, occupation, and income. SES has by far the greatest impact on scholastic achievement.

15.6. Parenting styles

15.6.1. Authoritarian attempts to shape, control, and measure children’s behaviours against fairly rigid standards

15.6.2. Authoritative a constant series of balancing acts: between expectation demands and encouragement to achieve, between establishing rules and meting out discipline, between fostering student independence and providing parental influence, and between open communication and direct advice.

15.6.3. Permissive openly tolerant and accepting of nearly all children’s actions, rarely making behavioural demands or invoking restrictions, and does not purposefully distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable actions.

15.7. Banks’ Dimensions of Multicultural Education

15.7.1. Content integration

15.7.2. The knowledge construction process

15.7.3. An equity pegadogy

15.7.4. Prejudice reduction

15.7.5. An empowering school culture and social structure

16. 8) End of School Year - Standardized Achievement Tests

16.1. Arguments for/against Standardized Testing

16.1.1. For Opportunity to compare educational outcomes across schools and boards Opportunity to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the school system Offer a means of accountability for schools/boards to ensure they are meeting their goals

16.1.2. Against Encourages "teaching to the test" The tests do not account for cultural differences among students Minorities can get lost within the overall numbers Leads to student disengagement The tests are suited to evaluating 21st-century skills such as creativity, technological ability, and teamwork

16.2. Standardized testing in Ontario

16.2.1. Grade 3 EQAO - reading, writing, mathematics

16.2.2. Grade 6 EQAO - reading, writing, mathematics

16.2.3. Grade 9 EQAO - mathematics

16.2.4. Grade 10 OSSLT - literacy

16.3. Criterion-references vs. Norm-referenced

16.4. Achievement test vs. Aptitude test

17. Views of Learning

17.1. Cognitive

17.2. Behavioural

17.3. Social and Constructivist