Motivation

Consumer Insight: Motivation exam revision

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Motivation by Mind Map: Motivation

1. Definitions

1.1. When a need arises there is a tension that drives the consumer to eliminate or reduce need

1.2. Process that causes people to behave the way they do

1.3. Consumer needs/wants

1.3.1. Need - a basic goal e.g keeping yourself nourished

1.3.2. Want - form of consumption used to satisfy need e.g. want pizza to stop being hungry

2. Classifying consumer-needs

2.1. Consumers may have multiple needs at the same time, often one is prioritised over the others e.g. Trainers for comfort, durable = Utilitarian / trendy, stylish = Hedonic

2.2. Biogenic Needs

2.2.1. Necessary elements to maintain life e.g. food, water, shelter, etc

2.3. Utilitarian Needs

2.3.1. Provide function - often tangible

2.4. Hedonic Needs

2.4.1. Pleasure, fun, enjoyment - often subjective

2.5. Psychological Needs

2.5.1. Needs of status and power e.g. becoming member of group cult

3. Drive Reduction (Push) (Hull, 1943)

3.1. Biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal e.g. stomach grumbles because were hungry or headache because dehydrated

3.1.1. Humans have default tendency to reduce tension so as a result will take action

3.1.1.1. Return body to balanced state called HOMESTATIS

3.2. Not all tensions can be resolved, depends on strength of drive/tension

3.3. Successful behaviour is likely repeated

3.4. Fear appeal is used to make consumers concerned /worried so are motivated to take action

4. Expectancy (pull) Theory (Vroom, 1964)

4.1. Suggests behaviour is largely governed by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes

4.1.1. Consumer chooses brand A over brand B because they expect better from brand A

4.1.1.1. Motivated because we expect positive incentives

4.2. Benefits from the product are the pull factors of our behaviour

4.3. Companies highlight benefits to drive our motivation to act to achieve rewards/benefits

4.3.1. Queue 36 hours for iPhone X

4.3.2. Voice command for Alexa

4.4. 3 components

4.4.1. Expectancy

4.4.1.1. Will benefit be as good as expected? Can I afford it?

4.4.2. Instrumentality

4.4.2.1. How do I know how good the benefit is?

4.4.3. Valence

4.4.3.1. How significant is the reward/benefits? Will it make my life significantly better?

4.5. Positive incentives rather than being pushed from within (push)

5. Freud's Theory of Unconscious Needs

5.1. Importance of the unconscious mind which governs behaviour

5.1.1. Unconscious needs/drives are at the heart of human motivation and personality

5.2. Freudian System

5.2.1. Id

5.2.1.1. Reflects instincts, the pleasures

5.2.1.2. Biogenic needs - Shelter, food, needs to express anger

5.2.1.3. Sough gratification by satisfying basic needs

5.2.2. Superego

5.2.2.1. Counterweight to the Id

5.2.2.2. Essentially the persons conscience - develops from childhood and is responsible for ensuring moral standards are followed

5.2.2.3. Operates on the morality principle - motivates us to behave in a socially responsible and acceptable manner

5.2.3. Ego

5.2.3.1. Reflects the reality

5.2.3.2. Mediates between Id and Superego. Acts as referee of fight between temptation and morality

5.2.3.3. Aims to satisfy the demands of the Id in a socially acceptable way

5.2.3.4. Operates on the reality principle - operates both conscious and unconscious mind

5.3. Example: Snickers "You're not you when you're hungry" ad

5.3.1. Attempts to trigger the Id (unconscious desire) of consumers - some sort of counter action from superego - message is to persuade ego to make a decision in favour of the Id

6. Maslow's Hierachy of Needs

6.1. Five-tier model of human needs.

6.1.1. States that people are motivated to achieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others.

6.1.2. Basic needs for survival like food, water and shelter will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour

6.1.2.1. Once that level is fulfilled the next level is what motivates us and so on

6.2. Hierarchy

6.2.1. Psychological needs

6.2.1.1. Air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep

6.2.2. Safety needs

6.2.2.1. Protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear

6.2.3. Love and belonging needs

6.2.3.1. Friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

6.2.4. Esteem needs

6.2.4.1. Maslow classified into two categories

6.2.4.1.1. Esteen for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence)

6.2.4.1.2. Desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g. status, prestige). More important for children and adolescents

6.2.5. Self-actualisation needs

6.2.5.1. Realising personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

6.2.5.1.1. A desire "to become everything one is capable of becoming"

6.3. Criticism

6.3.1. People don't necessarily fufil one type of needs before moving up to others

6.3.2. People who live in poverty which mean their basic needs haven't been fulfilled but it doesn't mean that they don't have needs for love, belonging or self-esteem

6.3.2.1. General agreement that people give priority and more attention to the basic needs over others

7. Motivational conflicts

7.1. Consumers face conflict between different types of motivation

7.1.1. A person might be motivated by two different things - going out for meal or staying in and watching a movie

7.1.1.1. Cognitive dissonance applies here too so consumers try to seek out solutions to resolve or reduce tensions

7.2. Approach-Approach conflict

7.2.1. Motivated to approach the postive outcome

7.2.2. A person must chose between two desirable alternatives e.g. choose between 2 holidays: skiing or kayaking with friends

7.2.2.1. Each are equally desirable, Marketers will need to communicate products with distinct benefits to make the choice easier for consumers depending on goals

7.3. Approach-Avoidance conflict

7.3.1. Some products we desire have negative consequences

7.3.1.1. Satisfies one goal but negatively impacts another

7.3.2. Marketers introduced a range of products which aim to ease this conflict by reducing the negative impact of the product

7.3.2.1. Example: Coca Cola using zero sugar. Marketers effort is to convince consumers that products have the same taste

7.4. Avoidance-Avoidance conflict

7.4.1. Consumers face hard choices were none of the options are desirable

7.4.1.1. Example: Students having to choice an optional module with 2hr exams at the end or another module with 2 courseworks

7.4.1.2. Example: Pay a lot of money for a new car or buy an affordable car that needs lots of repairs/work costs later

7.4.2. Marketers may help consumers - Credit scheme is one of option to ease conflict and help consumers make their choice

8. Herzberg Two factor theory of motivation (1964)

8.1. Motivators

8.1.1. Factors which could directly motivate people such as recognition, achievement, the type of job/ role/ responsibility which fills ones potential

8.2. Hygiene (de-motivators)

8.2.1. Don't motivate people but if not present then de-motivate people

8.2.1.1. Example: Work computer, clean toilet, a monthly wage

8.2.1.2. If these factors were absent would make people unhappy, but if present don't necessarily make people happy or motivate them to work harder

8.3. Most important part is that motivators and de-motivators work independently from one another

8.3.1. Herzberg challenges the misconception that removing or improving de-motivators would increase peoples motivation

8.3.2. They do not necessarily substitute or compliment one another.

8.4. Application in marketing

8.4.1. Marketers will market a laptop with basic elements like usb ports, webcams etc

8.4.1.1. Not things that will make a customer happy but marketers add these to avoid disappointing the customer

8.4.1.2. Do not spend a great deal of time or resources working on the de-motivators

8.4.2. Marketers focus on the motivators as they are the sources of satisfaction

8.4.2.1. In this case is processing speed, storage capacity etc

8.4.3. Motivators are often used to market product