Three Reading Comprehension Strategies

Reading Comprehension Strategies: Questioning, Visualizing, Inferring

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Three Reading Comprehension Strategies by Mind Map: Three Reading Comprehension Strategies

1. Questioning while reading

1.1. Thinking aloud - sharing your questions

1.1.1. modeling questions that arise during reading

1.1.2. coding with margin notes, sticky notes

1.1.3. thin questions (short answers): * clarify confusion * to understand words * what, how many, yes/no?

1.1.4. thick questions (long, involved answers): * global or universal concepts * large content-area * why, how come, I wonder?

1.2. Learning and wondering

1.2.1. I Learned / I Wonder chart

1.2.2. stop, think, and wonder!

1.2.3. Questions / Facts chart - organizing thinking

1.3. Not all questions are answered!

1.3.1. categorize questions that arise during reading

1.3.2. questions whose answers come from: A - the text itself I - inference from text D - further discussion RD - further research BK - background knowledge

1.3.2.1. reading to answer a question

1.3.2.2. Notes / Thinking chart - reading with a question in mind

1.3.3. the unanswered questions are sometimes the most interesting ones!

1.4. Questions that lead to inferences

1.4.1. meaning arises out of questions (poetry)

1.4.2. interpretation and inference

1.4.2.1. inferential questions that deepen and extend thinking

1.4.2.2. supporting answers with evidence and ideas from text

1.4.3. personal responses - no absolute answers!

1.5. Question webs to construct meaning

1.5.1. a question lies at the center of the web

1.5.2. spokes contain bits of information that relate to question

1.5.3. answer is constructed from information in those spokes

1.6. Questions: researchable, authentic, assessment

1.6.1. information-seeking questions lead to research

1.6.2. assessment questions check students' knowledge: "I know the answer; let's see if you do"

1.6.3. lingering and authentic questions are often open-ended and spur divergent thinking, or invite pondering and speculation

2. Visualizing while reading

2.1. Mental images and movies

2.1.1. create images or movies in the mind

2.1.2. we become attached to or identify with characters we visualize

2.1.3. personalizes and engages reader

2.2. Vivid imagery that stimulates the senses

2.2.1. visualizing can fill in actions or scenes not depicted in a picture book

2.2.2. vividly detailed and descriptive writing can also evoke smell, taste, touch, and sound

2.2.3. compelling narrative helps you imagine yourself in the scene

2.3. Visualization for non-fiction

2.3.1. expository text often conveys size, weight, length, height, distance, time

2.3.1.1. we compare these to objects that are handy or familiar to us

2.3.1.2. graphs, charts, timelines, diagrams are additional visualization tools to aid understanding

3. Inferring while reading

3.1. Reading between the lines

3.1.1. feelings can be inferred by "reading" * faces * expressions * body language * tone

3.2. Encountering unfamiliar vocabulary

3.2.1. inferring meaning from context clues

3.2.2. Word / Inferred Meaning / Clues / Sentence chart

3.3. Drawing inferences from cover art and illustrations

3.3.1. clues from sources other than the text itself

3.3.2. Quote or Picture from Text / Inference chart

3.4. Inferring from text

3.4.1. BK + TC = I background knowledge + text clues = inference

3.4.2. Background Knowledge / Text Clues / Inference chart

3.5. Discerning plot and central ideas - inferring themes

3.5.1. plot vs. themes * plot: what happens in the narrative * themes: underlying ideas, morals, lessons

3.5.2. readers can recount the plot, but react to themes

3.5.3. Themes / Evidence From Text chart

3.6. Content-area reading: engaging with technical material

3.6.1. textbooks are not like authentic nonfiction (newspapers, books, magazines)

3.6.2. unfamiliar terms and concepts, as well as dry writing, make reading textbooks difficult

3.6.3. use multisource, multigenre, multimedia curriculum to deliver content, differentiate, engage

3.6.4. Facts / Inferences chart - distinguish facts from interpretation (hypotheses)

3.6.5. I wonder (Questions) / I think (Inferences) chart - activate background knowledge first!

3.7. Reading to dispel misconceptions

3.7.1. reread for deeper meaning or clarification

3.7.2. check your understanding with someone else if it doesn't seem to make sense

4. Reflection

4.1. Active reading resembles active listening

4.1.1. * pay attention, be in the moment * suspend judgment, be open to new ideas * reflect by paraphrasing key points * clarify through open-ended, probing questions * summarize to confirm grasp of other's point of view * share your own experiences or ideas

4.1.2. listen to understand and learn, rather than just to respond

4.2. Connection to epistemology (theory of knowledge)

4.2.1. * what does it mean to know something? knowledge as 'justified true belief' * how do we know that we know? justification through evidence * how do we distinguish knowledge from belief?

4.2.1.1. sources of knowledge and justification * perception * introspection * memory * reason * testimony

4.3. Critical thinking: objective analysis of facts to form a judgment

4.3.1. * organize, clarify, improve thinking processes * interpret, analyze, evaluate, infer * recognize errors and biases in your thinking * discipline thinking to be clear, rational, open-minded, and informed by evidence

4.3.1.1. * what is author's purpose in writing this text? * is this fact or belief? * how does the author know this? * is there reliable evidence for this?

4.4. Connection to music-making process

4.4.1. * recall/understand: reproducing what the composer wrote on the page * apply: infer, interpret composer's intentions * analyze: connect to other works in the musical literature, or by the same composer * evaluate/create: "make the piece your own" by making artistic judgments in performing the work

4.4.1.1. questioning: * what is composer's purpose in writing this piece? * why did composer write in this style, with this structure, at this speed, in this mood? * do parts of this piece relate back to other parts, or to other works by the same or by other composers?

4.4.1.2. visualizing: * what do I imagine when I play this work? * what story do I think the composer is trying to tell? * what mental images help me tell this story? * how can I create the same images in the minds of my audience?

4.4.1.3. inferring: * what is the composer expressing through his work? * does the composer hint at a deeper meaning? * what are the themes, and how are they developed through the piece?