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Plants by Mind Map: Plants

1. Embryophytes

1.1. Nonvascular plants

1.1.1. Has archegonium and atheridium

1.1.2. Have flagellated sperm

1.1.3. Hepatophyta (liverworts)

1.1.4. Bryophytes (true mosses)

1.1.4.1. Gametophytes independent from sporophytes

1.1.5. Anthocerophyta (hornworts)

2. Benefits of moving to land

2.1. Unfiltered sun

2.2. More carbon dioxide

2.3. Nutrient-rich soil

3. Vascular plants

3.1. Xylem tissue

3.1.1. Conducts water and nutrients up from roots

3.1.1.1. Tracheids: type of water-conducting cell in xylem that lacks perforations in the cell wall

3.2. Phloem tissue

3.2.1. Conducts sugar and other metabolic products down from leaves

3.3. Life cycle dominated by sporophyte phase

3.4. Well developed roots and leaves

3.5. Gametophyte dependent on sporophyte

3.6. Seed/Vascular plants

3.6.1. Derived traits of seed plants

3.6.1.1. Reduced gametophytes

3.6.1.1.1. Microscopic male and female gametophytes protected by the sporophyte

3.6.1.2. Heterospory

3.6.1.2.1. Creates microspores and megaspores which result in male and female gametophytes respectively

3.6.1.3. Ovules

3.6.1.3.1. Creates female reproductive cells. Contains Integument (protective casing), megaspore (haploid female reproductive cell), and megasporangium (diploid reproductive cell)

3.6.1.4. Pollen

3.6.1.4.1. Renders water obsolete for reproduction as wind and animals can fulfill the need for transportation

3.6.1.5. Seeds

3.6.1.5.1. More durable than spores, an embryo encased in a protective coating with a food supply that can wait long periods before germinating

3.6.2. Gymnosperms

3.6.2.1. Has archegonium

3.6.2.2. Has "naked seeds" which are not exclosed in ovaries

3.6.2.3. Has cones

3.6.2.4. Has seeds

3.6.2.5. Has megaphyll vascular system

3.6.2.6. Cyadophyta

3.6.2.7. Ginkophyta

3.6.2.8. Gnetophyta

3.6.2.9. Coniferophyta

3.6.2.9.1. Most conifers are evergreens

3.6.3. Angiosperms (Anthophyta)

3.6.3.1. Has flowers

3.6.3.1.1. Incomplete flowers lack at least one of the parts that make up a complete flower

3.6.3.1.2. Complete flowers have all of the parts of a proper flower

3.6.3.1.3. Radial and bilateral symmetry

3.6.3.2. Has fruits

3.6.3.2.1. Fleshy fruits

3.6.3.2.2. Dry fruits

3.6.3.3. Has megaphyll vascular system

3.6.3.4. Has seeds

3.6.3.5. Bennettitales

3.6.3.6. Basal angiosperms

3.6.3.6.1. Amborella

3.6.3.6.2. Water lilies

3.6.3.6.3. Star anise

3.6.3.7. Magnoliids

3.6.3.7.1. Monocots

3.6.3.7.2. Eudicots

3.7. Seedless vascular plants

3.7.1. Are homosporous (creates asexual spores of one type)

3.7.2. Have flagellated sperm

3.7.3. Lycophyta

3.7.3.1. Has microphyll vacular system

3.7.3.2. Are evergreens

3.7.3.3. Club mosses

3.7.3.3.1. Has cones

3.7.3.4. Spike mosses

3.7.3.5. Quillworts

3.7.4. Monilophyta

3.7.4.1. Has archegonium and antheridium

3.7.4.2. Ferns

3.7.4.2.1. Has megaphyll vascular system

3.7.4.3. Horsetails

3.7.4.3.1. Has microphyll vascular system

3.7.4.3.2. Has cones

3.7.4.4. Wiskferns

3.7.4.4.1. Has megaphyll vascular system

4. Adaptations of moving to land

4.1. Development of sporopollenin

4.1.1. Tough polymer that prevents zygotes from drying out

4.2. Apical meristems

4.2.1. Specialized cells that always split upwards when they divide

4.3. Cuticles

4.3.1. Waxy or hard protective layer covering epidermis of plant

4.4. Stomata

4.4.1. Specialized cells that allow for gas exchange between plant and outer air

4.5. Mycorrhizai

4.5.1. Symbiotic relationships between land plants and fungi that allowed plants without true roots to gain nutrients