INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Rocket clouds
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by Mind Map: INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

1. 1.1 DISCUSS INFORMATION SYSTEM

1.1. 1.1.1 DEFINE INFORMATION AND INFORMATION SYSTEM

1.1.1. Information : Is data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users.

1.1.2. Information system : Combines information technology, people and data to support business requirements. Information System have 5 components which are hardware, software, data, processes and people.

1.2. 1.1.2 DESCRIBE INFORMATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS.

1.2.1. Hardware : Is the physical layer of the information system

1.2.2. Software : System software Application software Enterprise applications

1.2.3. Data Tables store data Linked tables work together to supply data

1.2.4. Processes Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results

1.2.5. people - Stakeholders - Users, or end users

1.3. 1.1.3 IDENTIFY VARIOUS TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM

1.3.1. Transaction Processing Systems *Transaction Processing System are operational-level systems at the bottom of the pyramid.

1.3.2. Management Information Systems *Management Information Systems are management-level systems that are used by middle managers to help ensure the smooth running of the organization in the short to medium term.

1.3.3. Decision Support Systems *A Decision Support System can be seen as a knowledge based system, used by senior managers, which facilitates the creation of knowledge and allow its integration into the organization.

1.3.4. Executive Information Systems *Executive Information Systems are strategic-level information systems that are found at the top of the Pyramid.

2. 1.2 DISCUSS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT APPROACH

2.1. 1.2.1 EXPLAIN SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT METHOD:

2.1.1. A. STRUCTURED ANALYSIS

2.1.1.1. -Is a traditional systems development technique that is time tested and easy to understand. -Uses a series of phases to plan, analyze, design, implement and support an IS.

2.1.2. B. OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS

2.1.2.1. -is a popular technical approach for analyzing, designing an application, system, -or business by applying the object-oriented paradigm and visual modeling

2.1.3. C. AGILE/ADAPTIVE METHOD

2.1.3.1. refers to an iterative, incremental method of managing the design and build activities of engineering, information technology and other business areas that aim to provide new product or service development in a highly flexible and interactive manner.

3. 1.2.2 EXPLAIN SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE(SDLC)ACTIVITIES:

3.1. A. PLANNING

3.1.1. This is a preliminary plan (or a feasibility study) for a company’s business initiative to acquire the resources to build on an infrastructure to modify or improve a service. The company might be trying to meet or exceed expectations for their employees, customers and stakeholders too. The purpose of this step is to find out the scope of the problem and determine solutions.

3.2. B. ANALYZE

3.2.1. In the event of a problem, possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project.

3.3. C. DESIGN

3.3.1. This is the step for end users to discuss and determine their specific business information needs for the proposed system. It"s during this phase that they will consider the essential components (hardware and/or software) structure (networking capabilities), processing and procedures for the system to accomplish its objectives

3.4. D. DEVELOPMENT

3.4.1. This work includes using a flow chart to ensure that the process of the system is properly organized. The development phase marks the end of the initial section of the process. Additionally, this phase signifies the start of production. The development stage is also characterized by instillation and change. Focusing on training can be a huge benefit during this phase

3.5. E. TESTING

3.5.1. Testing may be repeated, specifically to check for errors, bugs and interoperability. This testing will be performed until the end user finds it acceptable. Another part of this phase is verification and validation, both of which will help ensure the program’s successful completion.

3.6. F. IMPLEMENTATION

3.6.1. The sixth phase is when the majority of the code for the program is written. Additionally, this phase involves the actual installation of the newly-developed system. This step puts the project into production by moving the data and components from the old system and placing them in the new system via a direct cutover.

3.7. G. MAINTENANCE

3.7.1. This step is when end users can fine-tune the system, if they wish, to boost performance, add new capabilities or meet additional user requirements. In this phase, periodic maintenance for the system will be carried out to make sure that the system won’t become obsolete, this will include replacing the old hardware and continuously evaluating system’s performance, it also includes providing latest updates for certain components to make sure it meets the right standards and the latest technologies to face current security threats.

4. 1.2.3 DESCRIBE VARIOUS TYPES OF LIFE CYCLE MODELS SUCH AS:

4.1. A. WATERFALL MODEL

4.1.1. Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that objects that act upon that data.

4.2. B. SPIRAL MODEL

4.2.1. each iteration, or phase, of the model must have a specific goal that is accepted, rejected, or changed by the user, or client.

4.3. C. ITERATIVE AND INCREMENTAL DEVELOPMENT

4.3.1. Develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time (incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during development of earlier parts or versions of the system.

4.4. D. AGILE MODEL

4.4.1. Agile methods attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements

4.5. E. PROTOTYPING MODEL

4.5.1. Prototyping tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decision are made. A prototype can serve as an initial model that is used as a benchmark to evaluate the finished system, or the prototype itself can develop into the final version of the system.

4.6. F. RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT(RAD)

4.6.1. is a team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system. uses a group approach, but goes much further. The end product of RAD is the new information system.

4.7. JOINT APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT(JAD)

4.7.1. A JAD team usually meets over a period of days or weeks to analyze the existing system, obtain user input and expectations, and document user requirements for the new system. The JAD group usually has a project leader, who needs strong interpersonal and organizational skills, and one or more members who document and record the results and decisions.

5. 1.2.4 IDENTIFY APPROPRIATE LIFE CYCLE MODELS BASED ON GIVEN SCENARIO

5.1. 1.2.5 DESCRIBE PROJECT MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES:

5.1.1. A. PLANNING

5.1.1.1. includes identifying all project tasks and estimating the completion time and cost of each.

5.1.2. B. SCHEDULING

5.1.2.1. involves the creation of a specific timetable, usually in the form of charts that show tasks, task dependencies, and critical tasks that might delay the project. Scheduling also involves selecting and staffing the project team and assigning specific tasks to team members. Project scheduling uses Gantt charts and PERT/CPM charts.

5.1.3. C. MONITORING

5.1.3.1. requires guiding, supervising, and coordinating the project team’s workload. The project manager must monitor the progress, evaluate the results, and take corrective action when necessary to control the project and stay on target.

5.1.4. D. REPORTING

5.1.4.1. includes regular progress reports to management, users, and the project team itself. Effective reporting requires strong communication skills and a sense of what others want and need to know about the project.

6. 1.3 UNDERSTAND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

6.1. 1.3.1 EXPLAIN PROJECT PLANNING,SCHEDULING.MONITORING,AND REPORTING.

6.2. 1.3.2 EXPLAIN STEPS IN PROJECT PLANNING

6.3. 1.3.3 DESCRIBE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES,TASK PATTERNS AND CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS

6.3.1. A critical path is a series of tasks which, if delayed, would affect the completion date of the overall project. If any task on the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project will be delayed.

6.3.2. Tasks in a work breakdown structure must be arranged in a logical sequence called a task pattern. Types of task pattern : dependent tasks : When tasks must be completed one after another. Eg : relay race

6.4. 1.3.4 CREATE A WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

6.4.1. Work breakdown structure (WBS) involves breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks. A work breakdown structure must clearly identify each task and include an estimated duration. A task, or activity, is any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources such as people, time, or money.

6.5. 1.3.5 EXPLAIN TECHNIQUES FOR ESTIMATING TASK COMPLETION TIMES AND COSTS

6.6. 1.3.6 EXPLAIN LEADERSHIP AND PROJECT MANAGER

6.6.1. In a systems project, the project manager, or project leader, usually is a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large. An analyst or a programmer/analyst might manage smaller projects. In addition to the project manager, most large projects have a project coordinator. A project coordinator handles administrative responsibilities for the team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time or expense.