Gero Mind Map (Age Related Changes)

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Gero Mind Map (Age Related Changes) by Mind Map: Gero Mind Map       (Age Related Changes)

1. Integumentary

1.1. Skin is less elastic

1.2. Dry and fragile skin

1.3. Increased benign and malignant skin neoplasms

1.4. Thinning and graying hair

1.5. Reduced sweat gland activity

1.6. Lower body temperature

1.6.1. Ability to respond to cold temperature is reduced

1.6.2. Response to heat is altered

1.7. Common conditions

1.7.1. Skin cancer

1.7.2. Vascular lesions

1.7.3. Pressure ulcers

1.7.4. Keratosis

1.7.5. Seborrheic keratosis

1.7.6. Pruritus

1.8. Reduced thickness and vascularity of dermis

1.9. Elongated ears

1.10. More easily irritated and broken down

1.11. Reduction of melanocytes by 10-20% each decade beginning at 30

2. Renal/Genitourinary

2.1. Renal blood flow decline

2.2. Glomerular filtration decline

2.2.1. High blood urea nitrogen levels

2.2.2. Affects ability to eliminate drugs

2.2.3. Decreased tubular function

2.2.4. Increase in renal threshold for gluose

2.3. Reduced bladder capacity

2.4. Incontinence is NOT normal

2.5. Bladder muscle decline

2.5.1. Hypertrophy and thickening of muscle

2.5.2. Decreases ability to expand

2.5.3. Reduces storage capacity

2.5.3.1. Nocturia

2.5.3.2. Daytime urinary frequency

2.6. Common conditions

2.6.1. Decrease in nephrons

2.6.2. Urinary incontinence

2.6.3. Glomerulonephritis

2.6.4. Renal calculus

2.6.5. Bladder cancer

2.6.6. Nocturnal urine production

2.7. Risk of

2.7.1. Dehydration

2.7.2. Hypernatremia

2.7.3. Urinary tract infection

2.7.4. Hyponatremia

2.7.5. Volume overload

2.7.6. Neurotoxicity injury and adverse reactions from drugs

3. Cardiovascular

3.1. Nursing consideration

3.1.1. Promote circulation

3.1.2. Provide foot care

3.1.3. Promote normality

3.1.4. Educate the patient regarding treatment or disease process

3.1.5. Preventative measures

3.1.6. Promote activities of daily living i

3.1.7. Introduce complementary therapies

3.2. Common conditions

3.2.1. Hyperlipidemia

3.2.2. Pulmonary embolism

3.2.3. Hypertension

3.2.4. Chronic heart failure

3.2.5. Arrhythmia

3.2.5.1. Causes: infection, hemorrhage, angina syndrome, and coronary insufficiency

3.2.5.2. Treatment: digitalis, potassium supplements, change in diet, change in activities, anti-arrhythmic drugs

3.2.5.3. Signs and symptoms: fatigue, hypotension, bradycardia, syncope, weakness, confusion

3.2.6. PVD

3.2.6.1. Aneurysm

3.2.6.2. Diabetes mellitus

3.2.6.3. Atherosclerosis v

3.2.6.4. Edema

3.2.6.5. Varicose veins

3.2.6.6. Venous thromboembolism

3.2.6.6.1. Signs and symptoms: warmth, edema, cyanosis,aching, and engorgemnt of veins

3.2.6.6.2. Clot in bloodstream

3.2.6.6.3. Risk: bed rest, immobile, surgery, fractures

3.3. Risk of

3.3.1. Myocardial infarction

3.3.2. Arrhythmias

3.3.3. Hypotension

3.3.4. Hypertension

3.4. Heart muscle

3.4.1. Aorta becomes dilated

3.4.2. Myocardial muscle less efficient

3.4.3. Decreased cardiac outputth

3.4.4. Thick and rigid valvesh

3.4.5. Heart dimensions were unchanged

3.4.6. Less efficient oxygen

4. Respiratory

4.1. Common conditions

4.1.1. COPD

4.1.2. Asthma c

4.1.3. Chronic bronchitis

4.1.4. Emphysema

4.1.4.1. Treatment: postural drainage, education, support, diet, avoid stress, and breathing exercises

4.1.4.2. Signs and symptoms

4.1.4.2.1. Chronic cough, hypoxia, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss

4.1.4.3. Causes: chronic bronchitis, chronic irrigation and changes in the lung

4.2. Nursing considerations

4.2.1. Education

4.2.2. Medication education

4.2.3. Prevent complicationsc

4.2.4. Check vitals

4.2.5. Promote fluids

4.2.6. Promote productive cough

4.2.7. Postural drainage

4.3. Risk of

4.3.1. Infection

4.3.2. Broncospasm

4.3.3. Impaired circulation and oxygenation

4.4. Calcification of costal cartilage, trachea, and rib cage

4.5. Reduce o cough and laryngeal reflexes

4.6. Increased residual and vital capacity

4.7. Lungs reduce in size and weight

4.8. Decreased elastic recollection

4.9. Alveoli less elastic

4.10. High risk for respiratory infections

5. Gastrointestinal

5.1. Less acute taste sensation

5.2. Small and large intestine atrophy

5.3. Risk of

5.3.1. Aspiration

5.3.2. Indigestion

5.3.3. Constipation

5.4. Stomach

5.4.1. Decreased elasticity of the stomach

5.4.2. Higher pH

5.4.3. Decline in hydrochloride acid

5.4.4. Decline in pepsin sl

5.4.5. Owner peristalsis and activity

5.4.6. Bile salt synthesis decreases

5.5. Atrophy of tongue s

5.6. Alive production decreases

5.7. Esophagus

5.7.1. Decreased esophageal motility

5.7.2. Weaker contraction w

5.7.3. Darkness sphincter

5.7.4. Motility decreases

5.8. Reduced hepatic reserve

5.8.1. Decreased metabolism of drugs

5.8.2. Risk of adverse drug reactions

5.9. Malabsorption

5.9.1. Calcium

5.9.2. Carbohydrates

5.9.3. Folic acid

5.9.4. Vitamins b12 and d

5.9.5. Fats

5.10. Increased risk

5.10.1. GERD

5.10.2. Maldigestion

5.10.3. Fluid and electrolyte imbalancei

5.10.4. Impaired nutrition

5.10.5. Chewing impairment

5.11. Common conditions

5.11.1. Chronic constipation

5.11.2. GERD

5.11.3. Esophageal CA

5.11.4. Flatulence

5.11.5. Intestinal obstruction

5.11.6. Fecal impaction

5.11.7. Constipation

5.11.8. Biliary tract diseaseco

5.11.9. Colorectal cancer

5.11.10. Peptic ulcer

5.11.11. Xerostomia

5.11.12. Cue appendicitis

5.11.13. Peptic ulcer

5.11.14. Hiatal herniag

5.11.15. Gastric cancer

5.11.16. Esophageal cancer

6. Neurological

6.1. Common conditions

6.1.1. Parkinson's disease

6.1.2. Glaucoma

6.1.3. Perineal ulcer

6.1.4. Hearing deficits d

6.1.5. Detached retina

6.1.6. Macular degeneration

6.2. Impairment

6.2.1. Vision

6.2.1.1. Presbyopia

6.2.1.2. Narrowing of visual fieldde

6.2.1.3. Decreased peripheral vision

6.2.1.4. Pupil size reduction

6.2.1.5. Less reactive to light

6.2.1.6. Depth perception distortion

6.2.1.7. Visual acuity decline

6.2.2. Hearing

6.2.2.1. Presbycusis

6.2.2.2. Distortion of high pitched soundsc

6.2.2.3. Cerumen increases

6.2.2.4. Alteration in equilibrium

6.2.3. Taste and smell

6.2.3.1. Sense of smell altered with age

6.2.3.2. Atrophy of tongue

6.2.3.3. Taste acuity is dependent on smell

6.2.3.4. Decreased saliva

6.2.3.5. Poor oral hygiene

6.2.4. Touch

6.2.4.1. Reduction of tactile sensation

6.2.4.2. Reduced ability to sense pressure

6.2.4.3. Reduced ability to sense discomfort

6.2.4.4. Reduced ability to sense change in temperature

6.2.5. Deep tendon reflexes

6.2.6. General muscle strength s

6.2.7. Slowed motor skills

6.2.8. Impairment in thermoregulation

6.2.9. Reduction in tactile sensation

6.3. All senses are less proficient

6.4. Affects well-being and activist of daily living

6.5. Decreased blood flow to the brain

6.6. Reduction in neurons

6.7. Loss of nerve cell mass

6.7.1. Atrophy of brain and spinal cord

6.7.2. Brain weight decreases

6.8. Reduction in nerve fibers

6.9. Demyelinization

6.9.1. Slower nerve conduction

6.9.2. Response and reaction times are slower

6.9.3. Reflexes become weaker

6.10. Slow response in relation to balance

6.11. Free radicals accumulate

6.12. Verbal skills maintained until age 70

6.13. Less effective temperature regulation

6.14. Personality

6.14.1. Remains consistent with earlier years

6.15. Intelligence

6.15.1. Basic intelligence is upheld

6.15.2. Fluid intelligence declines

6.15.3. Learning ability stays the same

6.16. Risk of

6.16.1. Delirium

6.16.2. Alzheimer's

6.16.3. Dementia

6.16.4. Sleep disorders

7. Musculoskeletal

7.1. Thinning disk and shortened vertebrae

7.1.1. Joint instability

7.2. Reduced muscle mass, strength, and movement

7.3. Decreased bone mineral and mass

7.4. Diminished calcium absorption

7.5. Increased risk of fractures

7.6. Decline in size and number of muscle fibers

7.6.1. Decreased body streng

7.6.2. Endurance declines

7.7. Connective tissue changes

7.7.1. Reduced flexibility of joints and muscles

7.8. Sarcopenia

7.8.1. Reduction of muscle mass and function

7.8.2. Increased in muscle rotein degeneration

7.9. Common conditions

7.9.1. Gout

7.9.2. Fracture

7.9.3. Osteoporosis

7.9.4. Osteoarthritis

7.9.5. Plantar fasciitis i

7.9.6. Infections

8. Immune

8.1. T-cell activity declines

8.2. Cell-mediated immunity declinesri

8.3. So for infection f

8.4. Inflammatory defenses decline

8.5. Inflammation presents atypically

8.6. Decline in immune function

8.7. Increased risk of immature T cells

8.7.1. Reduced response to foreign antigens

8.7.2. Decrease in cell-mediated and humor a immunity

8.8. Reduced antibody response

8.9. Decreased number of angerhands cells in the skin

9. Endocrine

9.1. Thyroid gland activity decreases

9.2. ACTH secretion decreases

9.3. Pituitary release by beta cell is delayed r

9.4. Reduced metabolism of glucose

9.5. Higher blood glucose in nondiabetic patients

9.6. Decreased in secretion

9.6.1. Glucocorticoid

9.6.2. Aldosterone

9.7. Pancreas

9.7.1. Delayed and insufficient release

9.7.2. Decreased sensitivity to circulating glucose

9.8. Decrease in hormone

9.8.1. ACTH

9.8.2. TSH

9.8.3. Follicle stimulation g

9.8.4. Gonadal

9.8.5. Luteotropic

9.8.6. Luteinizing

9.9. Conditions

9.9.1. Diabetes mellitus

9.9.2. Hyperthyroidism

9.9.3. Hypothyroidism

9.10. Thyroid changes

9.10.1. Less secretion and release

9.10.2. Total serum iodine reduced

9.10.3. Increased modularity

9.10.4. Cellular infiltration fi

9.10.5. Fibrosis

9.10.6. Lower basal metabolic rate

9.10.7. T3 reduction

10. Reproductive

10.1. Changes have impact on functionsd

10.2. Decrease in responsiveness and frequency of organisms

10.3. Medication may affect sexuality

10.3.1. Affect potency, libido, organism, ejaculation

10.3.2. ACE inhibitors, antianxiety, antihypertensive, antiparinson, nicotine, dopamine, NSAIDS

10.4. Women

10.4.1. Less lubrication

10.4.2. Thinning of walls

10.4.3. Often gain new interest in sex

10.4.4. Vulva atrophy

10.4.5. Fattening of labia and loss of subcutaneous fat

10.4.6. Cervix, Fallopian tube, and uterus atrophy

10.4.7. Vaginal canal

10.4.7.1. Reduction in collagen and adipose tissue

10.4.7.2. Shortening and narrow of canal

10.4.7.3. Less lubrication and more alkaline pH

10.4.8. Fallopian tubes are shorter and straighter

10.4.9. Endometrium to respond to hormones

10.4.10. Common conditions

10.4.10.1. Cancer of the ovaries

10.4.10.1.1. Bleeding

10.4.10.1.2. As cites

10.4.10.1.3. Prescience of multiple masses

10.4.10.2. Perineal herniation

10.4.10.2.1. S&S:

10.4.10.2.2. Types

10.4.10.3. Infection of vulva

10.4.10.4. Vulva tumors

10.4.10.5. Cancer of the cervix

10.4.10.6. Cancer of endometrium

10.5. Men

10.5.1. Slow to erect and mount

10.5.2. Decreased testerone

10.5.3. Possible reduction in sperm count

10.5.4. Increase in follicle stimulating lutenizing hormone levels

10.5.5. Common conditions

10.5.5.1. Andropause

10.5.5.2. Erectile dysfunction

10.5.5.3. BPH

10.5.5.4. Penis cancer

10.5.5.4.1. Painless lesions or warts

10.5.5.4.2. Excision or penile amputation

10.5.5.5. Testes cancer

10.5.5.5.1. Enlargement of breast and testicular pain

10.5.5.6. Prostate cancer

10.5.5.6.1. S&S: back pain, anemia,

10.5.6. Seminal vehicle thind

10.5.7. Decrease capacity to retain fluid m

10.5.8. Muscle replace connective issuea

10.5.9. Prostate enlargement