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GUMS &STABILIZERS by Mind Map: GUMS &STABILIZERS
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GUMS &STABILIZERS

STRUTURES

high MW polymers

Degree of substitution DS

Degree of polymerization DP

FUNCTIONS

Thickening agents

Gelling or texturizing agents

Stabilisation of emulsion

Suspension of particulants

Control of crystallisation

Encapsulation

Formation of film

FACTORS AFFECT GUM PROPERTIES

Molecular weight

Monosaccharide composition

side chains

GELATION OF HYDROCOLLOIDS

gelling on

thermoreversible (gel formed on heating or cooling and the process is reversiblle)

thermally irreversible

MAIN CLASSES OF HYDROCOLLOIDS

derivatives from exudation or sap of trees

extract from seed

extract from seaweeds

microbial gums

extract from tubers

extract from plant parts

PECTIN

* Derived from the peel of citrus fruits * Natural form : protopectin (insoluble) * Chain of polygalacturonic acid- partially esterified as methyl esters

GUAR GUM

Derived from guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) seeds, this long, rigid, linear molecule of beta-1,4-D-galactomannans with alpha-1,6-linked D-galactose.

This galactomannan is soluble in cold water, hydrating quickly to produce viscous pseudoplastic solutions that, although shear-thinning, generally have greater low-shear viscosity than other hydrocolloids.

It is stable over a wide pH range, but will degrade at pH extremes at high temperature. The molecules’ interfacial binding allows guar to act as an emulsifier

Guar gum binds water and retards ice-crystal growth.

XANTHAN GUM

Polysaccharides produced from fermentation of CHO substrate with Xanthomonas campestris

Completely soluble in cold water & produce high viscosity at low conc.

Excellent stability to heat & pH

pseudoplastic (shear-reversible) over broad shear rate and concentration ranges, but imparts a stringy texture.

used to thicken and stabilize emulsions, foams and suspensions in applications including sauces and dressings

CELLULOSE DERIVATIVES

Alkaline treatment convert cellulose into an ether

Clear solution & stable over pH4-10

Use for thickening, suspending, stabilizing & modify flow characteristics

Examples: carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) , hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)

Methylcellulose (MC) & HPMC gel when heated & return to their original liquid viscosities when cooled.

Use in fried foods- barrier to oil absorption, stop loss of moisture & improve adhesion of batter

CARRAGEENAN

- Carrageenan is a highly refined extract of seaweed from the rhodophyta family. - Chemically its composition is a long chain of galactose residues linked, resulting in a long chain of high molecular weight.

ALGINATE

Derived brown seaweed (Laminaria hyperborea)

Made up of blocks of Dmannuronic acid (M-blocks) & Lguluronic acid (G-block)

heat- and freeze/thaw-stable

can be prepared at very low solids and low temperatures with moderate shear

Provide stabilizing effect in frozen products

particularly useful in the formulation of restructured fruits and vegetables

Act as thickener & stabilizer in beverage

Propylene glycol alginate esterified form of alginate has emulsification property commonly used as stabilizer in emulsions

GUM ARABIC

Sap exuded from various species of Acacia trees

Polysaccharide contain galactose, rhamnose, arabinopyranose, arabinofuranose, glucoronic acid

least viscous and most soluble of all hydrocollods-up to 55%solid concentration can be used

promote stabilisation in beer foam

Encapsulation agent

Emulsifier and stabilizer in soft drink emulsion

Confectionery products – to retard sugar crystallization and promote emulsification

LOCUST BEAN GUM

Come from seed of the leguminose Ceratonia siliqua

Galactomannan gums

Insoluble in cold water & must be heated to dissolve

Does not form a gel by itself- gel when combined with xanthan gum

Primary functions: thickening, stabilization of emulsions, inhibition of syneresis

used in canned foods, sauces, desserts, ice-cream, processed meat

GELATIN

edible natural foodstuff

raw material used---skin (pigskin and hide split) and bone taken from slaughtered animals

collagen contained in raw materials is starting material for manufacture of gelatin

type A---derived from acid processed materials (porkskin)

type B---derived from alkaline or lime processed materials (calf hides,ossein)

forms thermally eversible gel wit water

melting temperature <35 degree celcius---give the melt-in-mouth properties, rapid release of aroma

used in gelled jelly, yogurt, fruit iuices, top quality ice-cream and frozen produts, gummy bears, etc.

FUNCTIONS