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GUMS &STABILIZERS by Mind Map: GUMS &STABILIZERS
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GUMS &STABILIZERS

STRUTURES

high MW polymers

long sugar chain

substituent protruding from main chain, carboxy COOH,COO-, pectin, alginate, xanthan, arabic, methyl ester COOCH3, pectin, sulfate OSO3-, carragenenan, acetyl, gellan,pectin, konjac, chitosan, mannose C6H12O6, guar, LBG, tara, carboxymethyl OCH2COOH, cellulose gum, methyl ether OCH3, methylcellulose

Degree of substitution DS

Higher DS - faster to hydrate

Lower DS - slower to hydrate

Degree of polymerization DP

Higher DP - higher viscosity, slower to hydrate

Lower DP - lower viscosity,faster to hydrate

FUNCTIONS

Thickening agents

Gelling or texturizing agents

Stabilisation of emulsion

Suspension of particulants

Control of crystallisation

Encapsulation

Formation of film

FACTORS AFFECT GUM PROPERTIES

Molecular weight

Monosaccharide composition

side chains

type

number

distribution

GELATION OF HYDROCOLLOIDS

gelling on

heating

cooling

presence of cations

acidic pH + high sugar conc.

alkaline pH

thermoreversible (gel formed on heating or cooling and the process is reversiblle)

gelatin, agar,kappa carrageenan,LM pectin, gellan gum, methyl cellulose, HPMC

thermally irreversible

alginates, strach, konjac, HM pectin

MAIN CLASSES OF HYDROCOLLOIDS

derivatives from exudation or sap of trees

cellulose, gum arabic, gum karaya, gum ghatti, gum tragacanth

extract from seed

guar gum, LBG, tara gum, tamarind gum

extract from seaweeds

agar, carrageenan

microbial gums

xanthan, dextrun,curdlan

extract from tubers

konjac

extract from plant parts

starch, pectin, cellulose

PECTIN

* Derived from the peel of citrus fruits * Natural form : protopectin (insoluble) * Chain of polygalacturonic acid- partially esterified as methyl esters

High Methoxy Pectin (HMP), * DE---58% to 75%, * to form gel, soluble solid content 55-85%, pH 2.8-3.8. (e.g. jam and jellies), * ultrarapid/rapid set (DE as high as 77)---used in jam with whole fruits, to ensure uniform distribution of fruits particles., * slow set (DE~58) ---used in very acid fruits such as blackcurrant to avoid premature gelation.

Low Methoxy Pectin (LMP), DE < 50% — two sub-groups: Conventional low methoxyl pectin (LMP) and Amidated low methoxyl pectin (ALMP), Form gels in the presence of Ca2+, with a low solids content & wide pH range (1-7) [but soluble solids can be up to 85%], LMP – less Ca2+ reactive than ALMP ⇒ used as a thickening agent in yoghurt fruit, ALMP – very Ca2+ reactive ⇒ assist gelation in low sugar fruit preparations, e.g. low-sugar jams & jellies

GUAR GUM

Derived from guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) seeds, this long, rigid, linear molecule of beta-1,4-D-galactomannans with alpha-1,6-linked D-galactose.

This galactomannan is soluble in cold water, hydrating quickly to produce viscous pseudoplastic solutions that, although shear-thinning, generally have greater low-shear viscosity than other hydrocolloids.

It is stable over a wide pH range, but will degrade at pH extremes at high temperature. The molecules’ interfacial binding allows guar to act as an emulsifier

Guar gum binds water and retards ice-crystal growth.

XANTHAN GUM

Polysaccharides produced from fermentation of CHO substrate with Xanthomonas campestris

Completely soluble in cold water & produce high viscosity at low conc.

Excellent stability to heat & pH

pseudoplastic (shear-reversible) over broad shear rate and concentration ranges, but imparts a stringy texture.

used to thicken and stabilize emulsions, foams and suspensions in applications including sauces and dressings

CELLULOSE DERIVATIVES

Alkaline treatment convert cellulose into an ether

Clear solution & stable over pH4-10

Use for thickening, suspending, stabilizing & modify flow characteristics

Examples: carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) , hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)

Methylcellulose (MC) & HPMC gel when heated & return to their original liquid viscosities when cooled.

Use in fried foods- barrier to oil absorption, stop loss of moisture & improve adhesion of batter

CARRAGEENAN

- Carrageenan is a highly refined extract of seaweed from the rhodophyta family. - Chemically its composition is a long chain of galactose residues linked, resulting in a long chain of high molecular weight.

Kappa (K-carrageenan), thermoreversible gel

Lambda (ɻ-carrageenan), does not form gel

Lota (ɩ-carrageenan), thermoreversible gel

ALGINATE

Derived brown seaweed (Laminaria hyperborea)

Made up of blocks of Dmannuronic acid (M-blocks) & Lguluronic acid (G-block)

heat- and freeze/thaw-stable

can be prepared at very low solids and low temperatures with moderate shear

Provide stabilizing effect in frozen products

particularly useful in the formulation of restructured fruits and vegetables

Act as thickener & stabilizer in beverage

Propylene glycol alginate esterified form of alginate has emulsification property commonly used as stabilizer in emulsions

GUM ARABIC

Sap exuded from various species of Acacia trees

Polysaccharide contain galactose, rhamnose, arabinopyranose, arabinofuranose, glucoronic acid

least viscous and most soluble of all hydrocollods-up to 55%solid concentration can be used

promote stabilisation in beer foam

Encapsulation agent

Emulsifier and stabilizer in soft drink emulsion

Confectionery products – to retard sugar crystallization and promote emulsification

LOCUST BEAN GUM

Come from seed of the leguminose Ceratonia siliqua

Galactomannan gums

Insoluble in cold water & must be heated to dissolve

Does not form a gel by itself- gel when combined with xanthan gum

Primary functions: thickening, stabilization of emulsions, inhibition of syneresis

used in canned foods, sauces, desserts, ice-cream, processed meat

GELATIN

edible natural foodstuff

raw material used---skin (pigskin and hide split) and bone taken from slaughtered animals

collagen contained in raw materials is starting material for manufacture of gelatin

type A---derived from acid processed materials (porkskin)

type B---derived from alkaline or lime processed materials (calf hides,ossein)

forms thermally eversible gel wit water

melting temperature <35 degree celcius---give the melt-in-mouth properties, rapid release of aroma

used in gelled jelly, yogurt, fruit iuices, top quality ice-cream and frozen produts, gummy bears, etc.

FUNCTIONS

gel formation

water binding

texturizing

thickening

emulsion formation and stabilisation

foam formation and stabilisation

film formation

adhesion/cohesion

protective colloidal function