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Gum and Stablizer by Mind Map: Gum and  Stablizer
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Gum and Stablizer

Sources

Animal

Gelatin, 2 type, Type B, Derived from alkaline or lime processed material, pH range 7.0-9.4, Type A, Derived from acid processed material, pH range 4.8-5.5, Glycine account 1/3 of all amino acid in gelatin, Specialty, Gives high quality of gel in dilute solution with a clean "melt in mouth " texture, At high concentration , gives elastic gum like texture which slowly dissolve in the mouth, Effective emulsifying & Foaming agent, As a polyelectrolyte

Plant

Carrageenan, Three types, Kappa, Lamda, Iota, Manufacturing process, Selection and cleaning of seaweed for each products, Decoloration, Alkaline modification, Clarification, Concentration by evaporation, Precipitation with alcohol or with KCL

Konjac Glucomannan

Locust Bean Gum

Gum Arabic

Pectin, High methoxy Pectin, Low methoxy pectin

Guar gum

Xanthan Gum

Cellulose derivatives, Carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, Hydroxypropylcellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Carboxymethylcellulose

Starch derivatives, Hydroxypropyl starch

Gelation

Thermally irreversible

Alginate, Formed on the addition of polyvalent cation notably calcium or at low pH

Starch

Konjac

HM pectin, Formed at high soluble solid content at low pH

Thermoreversible

Gelatin

Agar

K-carrageenan

i-carrageenan

LM pectin

Gellan gum

Methyl cellulose HPMC

Form on

Cooling, Gelatin, Agar, Kappa Carrageenan, Iota Carrageenan, Low methoxyl Pectin, Gellan (in presence of salt), Xanthan Gum, Locust bean gum ( formed after freezing), Konjac Manna ( addition of alkali)

Heating, Methyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose

Classification based on functional properties

Gelling Agents

Pectin

Carrageenan

Agar

Konjac

Gelatin

Thickeners

Gum Arabic

Xanthan Gum

Methyl cellulose

Hydroxypropyl cellulose

Galactomannas, Guar, Locust Bean Gum

Carboxymethylcellulose

Ranking of Gum Propeties

Solution Clarity

Solubility at various temperature

Gelling vs Thickening

Suspension ability

Acid Stablity

Good, Pectin, Xanthan, Gellan, Gum Arabic, LBG, Tragacanth

Fair, Guar, PGA, Alginate, Gelatin, Agar

Poor, Carrageenan, Cellulose derivatives

Natural vs Not natural

Ability to stabilize protein at low pH

Relative cost per unit weight

Function

Primary Function

Thickening Agent, Alginate in beverage, Locust Bean Gum, Cellulose derivatives

Gelling or texturizing agents

Secondary Function

Stabilisation of emulsion, Alginate, Gum arabic, Locust Bean Gum

Suspension of particulates

Control of crystallisation, Alginate

Encapsulation, Example Gum Arabic

Formation of Film

Main Classes of Hydrocolloids

Derivatives from exudation or sap of tree

Extract from

Seed, Locust Bean Gum, Guar Gum, Tare Gum, Tamarind Gum

Seaweeds, Carrageenan

Tubers, Konjac Glucomanna

Plant Parts, Pectin from peel of citrus fruits, Starch, Cellulose

Microbial Gum

Vicosity

temperature

Increased with temperature, Methyl cellulose, Hudroxypropyl cellulose

Decreased with temperature, Galactomannas, Guar, Locust Bean Gum

Addition of electrolyte

Decreased, Carboxymethylcellulose

Maintain, Xanthan Gum

Not influenced, Methyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose

pH

Low and High, Galactomannas

Not influenced, Methyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl cellulose