Gum and Stablizer

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Gum and Stablizer by Mind Map: Gum and  Stablizer

1. Gelation

1.1. Thermally irreversible

1.1.1. Alginate Formed on the addition of polyvalent cation notably calcium or at low pH

1.1.2. Starch

1.1.3. Konjac

1.1.4. HM pectin Formed at high soluble solid content at low pH

1.2. Thermoreversible

1.2.1. Gelatin

1.2.2. Agar

1.2.3. K-carrageenan

1.2.4. i-carrageenan

1.2.5. LM pectin

1.2.6. Gellan gum

1.2.7. Methyl cellulose HPMC

1.3. Form on

1.3.1. Cooling Gelatin Agar Kappa Carrageenan Iota Carrageenan Low methoxyl Pectin Gellan (in presence of salt) Xanthan Gum Locust bean gum ( formed after freezing) Konjac Manna ( addition of alkali)

1.3.2. Heating Methyl cellulose Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose

2. Ranking of Gum Propeties

2.1. Solution Clarity

2.2. Solubility at various temperature

2.3. Gelling vs Thickening

2.4. Suspension ability

2.5. Acid Stablity

2.5.1. Good Pectin Xanthan Gellan Gum Arabic LBG Tragacanth

2.5.2. Fair Guar PGA Alginate Gelatin Agar

2.5.3. Poor Carrageenan Cellulose derivatives

2.6. Natural vs Not natural

2.7. Ability to stabilize protein at low pH

2.8. Relative cost per unit weight

3. Function

3.1. Primary Function

3.1.1. Thickening Agent Alginate in beverage Locust Bean Gum Cellulose derivatives

3.1.2. Gelling or texturizing agents

3.2. Secondary Function

3.2.1. Stabilisation of emulsion Alginate Gum arabic Locust Bean Gum

3.2.2. Suspension of particulates

3.2.3. Control of crystallisation Alginate

3.2.4. Encapsulation Example Gum Arabic

3.2.5. Formation of Film

4. Vicosity

4.1. temperature

4.1.1. Increased with temperature Methyl cellulose Hudroxypropyl cellulose

4.1.2. Decreased with temperature Galactomannas Guar Locust Bean Gum

4.2. Addition of electrolyte

4.2.1. Decreased Carboxymethylcellulose

4.2.2. Maintain Xanthan Gum

4.2.3. Not influenced Methyl cellulose hydroxypropyl cellulose

4.3. pH

4.3.1. Low and High Galactomannas

4.3.2. Not influenced Methyl cellulose Hydroxypropyl cellulose

5. Sources

5.1. Animal

5.1.1. Gelatin 2 type Type B Type A Glycine account 1/3 of all amino acid in gelatin Specialty Gives high quality of gel in dilute solution with a clean "melt in mouth " texture At high concentration , gives elastic gum like texture which slowly dissolve in the mouth Effective emulsifying & Foaming agent As a polyelectrolyte

5.2. Plant

5.2.1. Carrageenan Three types Kappa Lamda Iota Manufacturing process Selection and cleaning of seaweed for each products Decoloration Alkaline modification Clarification Concentration by evaporation Precipitation with alcohol or with KCL

5.2.2. Konjac Glucomannan

5.2.3. Locust Bean Gum

5.2.4. Gum Arabic

5.2.5. Pectin High methoxy Pectin Low methoxy pectin

5.2.6. Guar gum

5.2.7. Xanthan Gum

5.2.8. Cellulose derivatives Carboxymethylcellulose methylcellulose Hydroxypropylcellulose Microcrystalline cellulose Carboxymethylcellulose

5.2.9. Starch derivatives Hydroxypropyl starch

6. Classification based on functional properties

6.1. Gelling Agents

6.1.1. Pectin

6.1.2. Carrageenan

6.1.3. Agar

6.1.4. Konjac

6.1.5. Gelatin

6.2. Thickeners

6.2.1. Gum Arabic

6.2.2. Xanthan Gum

6.2.3. Methyl cellulose

6.2.4. Hydroxypropyl cellulose

6.2.5. Galactomannas Guar Locust Bean Gum

6.2.6. Carboxymethylcellulose

7. Main Classes of Hydrocolloids

7.1. Derivatives from exudation or sap of tree

7.2. Extract from

7.2.1. Seed Locust Bean Gum Guar Gum Tare Gum Tamarind Gum

7.2.2. Seaweeds Carrageenan

7.2.3. Tubers Konjac Glucomanna

7.2.4. Plant Parts Pectin from peel of citrus fruits Starch Cellulose

7.3. Microbial Gum