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1.1. nutritive

1.1.1. 4 cal per g

1.1.2. processing

1.1.3. occur naturally

1.1.4. function give sweet&bulk maintain freshness preservatives(jam/jellies) flavor enhancer for meat fermentation bread&pickle bpdy to carbonated beveranges

1.1.5. example fructose all fruits polyols sugar alcohol sorbitol mannitol humectants raw sugar form when moisture from the sugar cane evaporate brown sugar sugar crystal from mollases honey fructose+glucose+water by bees dark color(more acidic&strongly flavor) HFCS hydrolyzed refined concentrated invert sugar divide to glucose+fructose sweeter than sucrose liquid form keep candies and baked remain sweet

1.2. non-nutiritve

1.2.1. most widely used

1.2.2. non caloric sweetener

1.2.3. chemically process

1.2.4. advantage aspartame economically widely used in carbonate beverages 180-200x sweet than sucrose enhance&extent flavor holds flavor do not promote tooth decay variety&flexibility for diabetic patients no affect blood glucose sucralose(splenda) not recognize as sugar of CHO x raise insulin neotame high potency cost saving reduce logistic resources acesulfame-K + aspartame will exhibit a significant synergistic affect large cost saving saccharin nonmetabolized 300x sweeter than sucrose high concentration can detect unpleasent aftertaste cyclamate 30x more patent than sugar aftertaste(minor) compare saccharin/acesulfame-K cyclamate+saccharin(10:1) imparts more round taste


2.1. sugar cane

2.2. sugar beat

2.3. corn syrup

2.4. honey

2.5. fruit juice/concentrate


3.1. sweetness

3.1.1. combination sugar+fat

3.1.2. provide sweet taste and texture without alter flavour

3.2. texture

3.2.1. ice cream provide body+ texture (smoothness) prevent lactose crystallize

3.2.2. bakery products sugar recrystallize water removed(crisp texture) cripness increased effect of browning tenderize product(slow the rate of starch molecule) water removed)crisp texture)

3.3. preservation

3.3.1. inhibit microbial growth&spoilage

3.3.2. high affinity of water

3.3.3. slow moisture loss

3.3.4. extend shelf life

3.3.5. can product maintain firmness minimize oxidation

3.3.6. inhibit oxidation prevent deteriorate flavor&texture prevent loss of color

3.4. fermentation

3.4.1. brewing&baking

3.4.2. increased dough yield(fermentation)

3.4.3. contribute sweetness

3.4.4. softness the bread

3.4.5. sugar that remain after ferment affect flavour color texture of crust

3.5. freezing point

3.5.1. frozen desert and ice cream

3.5.2. lower freezing point

3.5.3. small ice crystal, greater smoothness

3.6. appearance

3.6.1. baked caramelize(dark brown crust) Maillard reaction (browning)


4.1. most common sugar

4.2. obtain from sugar cane&sugar beat

4.3. more than 99.8% sucrose

4.4. pure sweet flavor

4.5. manufacture in various crystal size

4.5.1. table sugar

4.5.2. extra/ultra fine sugar

4.5.3. icing sugar

4.5.4. coarse sugar

4.5.5. decorative/pearl/sanding sugar