Distance Education in the U.S and Nursing Concept Map

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Distance Education in the U.S and Nursing Concept Map by Mind Map: Distance Education in the U.S and Nursing Concept Map

1. Federally

1.1. The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, defines distance education but does not define online education or correspondence course. The term correspondence course is used in the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, to describe an example of distance education. The term is used to describe how accreditation bodies do not have to have separate standards, policies or procedures for distance education or correspondence courses (Higher Education Act of 2008).

2. Definitions

2.1. Distance Education

2.1.1. According to the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 distance education is defined as “Education that uses one or more technologies to deliver instruction to students who are separated from the instructor and to support regular and substantive interaction between the students and the instructor synchronously or asynchronously"(STAT .3087). This definition is what federal, regional and program accreditors use to define distance education.

2.2. Correspondence Course

2.2.1. According to the SACS, (2018) correspondence education is defined as "a formal educational process under which the institution provides instructional materials, by mail or electronic transmission, including examinations on the materials, to students who are separated from the instructor. Interaction between the instructor and the student is limited, is not regular and substantive, and is primarily initiated by the student; courses are typically self-paced" (p.7). The NLN CNEA and CCNE do not specifically define correspondence course in their accreditation, however correspondence course is a form of distance education.

2.3. Online Education

2.3.1. Online education courses are when all or most of the course is delivered online and there is typically no face to face interaction, it is a form of distance education (Allen and Seaman, 2015). All 3 accrediting bodies explain how online education is a part of distance education.

3. Current state of distance education

3.1. Distance education continuing to grow showing 3.7% of students taking at least one distance course in 2013 to 3.9% in 2014 (Allen & Seaman, 2015, p.4).

3.1.1. This is a positive impact on nursing education because it gives students opportunities to pursue their BSN or MSN degree via distance education programs. This data shows that slowly distance education is increasing.

3.1.1.1. This shows nurse educators need to be trained and qualified to teach distance education courses because there is continued growth of distance education.

3.2. According to Allen and Seaman (2015) the data in 2015 showed no change in the amount of academic leaders who see learning outcomes as the same or superior to face to face instruction.

3.2.1. This can have a negative impact on nursing education. If academic leaders do not see distance and online education as at least equal to face to face instruction it could lead to a decrease in using online instruction courses for nursing education. In addition, current nurse educators may be less likely to want to teach online or pursue creating online courses.

3.3. According to Jaschik and Lederman (2016) 55% of faculty members disagreed or strongly disagreed that online courses learning outcomes are equal to those of in person instruction.

3.3.1. This is a negative influence their needs to be education and evidenced based research to help show that distance education courses and programs at the minimum equal the same learning outcomes for face to face courses. This statement was seen differently from technology administrators with 63% agreeing that online courses achieve the same learning outcomes to in person courses (Jaschik & Lederman, 2016).

3.4. According to Jaschik and Lederman (2016) 79% of faculty who have taught online courses say that it has improved their teaching in the class room and online.

3.4.1. It it important for future nurse educators to learn how to teach online courses because it allows them to become better teachers and use creative methods to help students learn. In addition, it challenges current nurse educators staff development to make their courses more robust and improve the educational experience (Jaschik & Lederman, 2016).

3.5. According to Jaschik and Lederman (2016) 76% of technology administrators and 58% of faculty members are confident that their data and students data is secure and private.

3.5.1. This can be seen as a positive influence because if nurse educators and students feel their information is safe online then this could lead to more student and faculty members willing to teach and learn through distance education programs.

3.6. According to Jaschik and Lederman (2016) the top three factors of online education quality according to faculty were the "institution provides training to the faculty members for an online course, the course is offered by an accredited institution, and that the online courses provides meaningful interaction between teachers and students" (p. 26).

3.6.1. This shows that nurse educators should be trained prior to teaching students via distance education, this will also help create a meaningful interaction between students and teachers. In addition, institutions that have accreditation are more likely to have quality online courses because the courses have to adhere to the accreditation standards for the courses.

4. SACS (Southeastern Association of Colleges and Schools)

4.1. This accreditation program has 14 sections that are applied to a college to determine if they will meet the accreditation sections (SACS, 2018). Accreditation by SACS (2018) means that the institution "has a mission appropriate to higher education, resources programs and services to accomplish and sustain that mission and maintain clearly specified educations objectives consistent with its mission" (SACS, 2018, p. 3).

4.1.1. Section 10 of SACS (2018) discusses educational policies, procedures and practices. Section 10, specifically speaks to colleges that offer distance or correspondence courses have a written procedure for protecting the student's privacy and ensuring that there is student identify verification (SACS, 2018). Therefore, the student who is enrolled and registered for the course is the same student who participates and completes the course to obtain course credit (SACS, 2018). The institution must also notify students in writing any additional charges associated with verifying the students identify (SACS, 2018).

4.1.1.1. Section 14 discusses the transparency and institutional representation that explains all standards and policies are applied to distance learning programs (SACS 2018).

5. CCNE (Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education)

5.1. The accreditation program has four standards that are applied to nursing programs to determine if they have met accreditation status.

5.1.1. The four standards are: Program Quality-Mission and Governance, Program Quality-Institutional Commitment and Resources, Curriculum and Teaching Learning Practices, and Assessment and Achievement of Program Outcomes (CCNE, 2018, p.1).

5.1.1.1. Standard I, discusses how faculty and students including distance education students should be able to participate in program governance (CCNE, 2018).

5.1.1.1.1. Standard II shows how academic support services must include distance education students (CCNE, 2018). For example distance education students should be able to access the library and tutors if needed.

6. NLN CNEA (National League for Nursing Commission for Nursing Education Accreditation)

6.1. This accreditation program has five standards that are applied to nursing programs to determine if they have met accreditation status (NLN CNEA, 2016).

6.1.1. The five standards that the NLN CNEA (2016) use are: "Culture of Excellence-Program Outcomes, Culture of Integrity and Accountability-Mission, Governance, and Resources, Culture of Excellence and Caring-Faculty, Culture of Excellence and Caring-Students, and Culture of Learning and Diversity-Curriculum and Evaluation Processes (p. 3-4).

6.1.1.1. Standard II Mission, Governance, and Resources discuss how governance structure should include students in distance education programs (NLN CNEA, 2016).

6.1.1.1.1. Standard IV discusses how students in distance education programs should have sufficient access to student services to facilitate their achievement of learning outcomes and academic success (NLN CNEA, 2016). In addition, this section explains how policies and procedures must be accessible to students in distance education programs (NLN CNEA, 2016). For example, having policies and procedures online so distance education students can access them.

7. Accreditation Standards

8. All 3 accrediting bodies emphasize that all sections or standards of their accrediting organization are applied to distance education programs in the same way as on campus or face to face programs.

9. References

10. Allen I. E. & Seaman J. (2015) Online report card – Tracking online education in the United States. Retrieved from https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/read/online-report-card-tracking-online-education-united-states-2015/

11. Jaschik, S. & Lederman, D. (2016). The 2016 Inside Higher Ed survey of faculty attitudes on technology. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/system/files/media/2016%20IHE%20Faculty%20Tech%20Survey.pdf

12. Department of Education. (2008). Higher Education Opportunity Act. Retrieved from https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ315/pdf/PLAW-110publ315.pdf

13. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges. (2018). The principles of Accreditation: Foundations for quality enhancement. Retrieved from http://www.sacscoc.org/principles.asp

14. Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. (2018). Standards for accreditation of baccalaureate and graduate degree nursing programs. Retrieved from https://www.aacnnursing.org/CCNE-Accreditation/Resource-Documents/CCNE-Standards-Professional-Nursing-Guidelines

15. National League for Nursing Commission for Nursing Education Accreditation. (2016). Accreditation standards for nursing education programs. Retrieved from http://www.nln.org/docs/default-source/accreditation-services/cnea-standards-final-february-201613f2bf5c78366c709642ff00005f0421.pdf?sfvrsn=10