Dementia related behaviors, symptoms, etc.

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Dementia by Mind Map: Dementia


1.1. Other characteristics of speech

1.1.1. Confabulation spontaneous or provoked use of inaccurate information to fill in memory gaps something that occurs when a person does not know the answer to the question but responds by offering an answer to it with no intention to deceive the one asking the question

1.1.2. ambiguous referents overuse of pronouns where it hasn't been established who/what the pronouns refer to also mentions of proper names as if they have meaning to a listener that has no knowledge of who those people are (and no reason to think the listener would know those names)

1.1.3. spontaneous versus nonspontaneous i.e. does vs doesn't initiate much speech

1.1.4. speech latency (pauses between questions and answers)

1.1.5. Verbal Perseveration the inappropriate recurrence or uncontrolled repetition of a previously produced response—phoneme, word, syntactic structure, semantic feature, idea, and the like—in place of the correct target item

1.2. Paraphasias

1.2.1. Verbal Paraphasia confusions of words or the replacement of one word by another real word

1.2.2. Neologistic Paraphasia substitution of words with non-words nonsense words (neologisms / jargon

1.2.3. Literal/phonological paraphasia where more than half of the spoken word is said correctly; substitution of a word with a nonword that preserves at least half of the segments and/or number of syllables of the intended word

1.2.4. Semantic errors of meaning a word with a similar meaning, such as saying “son” instead of “daughter” or “orange” instead of “apple.”

1.3. Aphasia

1.3.1. Fluent Wernicke's (receptive) characterized by fluent (spontaneous, grammatically shaped sentences, preserved prosody) language with made up or unnecessary words with little or no meaning to speech … difficulty understanding others speech and are unaware of their own mistakes…when corrected they will repeat their verbal paraphasias and have trouble finding the correct word. Effortless speech output. Empty speech Fluent, sometimes even with eloquent articulation, but is meaningless i.e. lacks substance, devoid of meaningful information (aka 'semantic content') irrelevant speech

1.3.2. Anomic characterized by fluent speech complicated by word-finding difficulties circumlocutory speech talking around a word or type using approximate or imprecise expressions Circumlocution is a phrase that circles around a specific idea with multiple words rather than directly evoking it with fewer and apter words

1.3.3. Nonfluent Broca's (expressive) characterized by non-fluent or telegraphic-type speech - where articles, conjunctions, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, pronouns and morphological inflections (plurals, past tense) are omitted. The word substitutions are infrequent and distortion of consonants and simplification of consonant clusters is frequent. Content words such as nouns, verbs and adjectives may be preserved. Typically, unaware of their errors in speech and do not realize their speech lacks meaning. Effortful speech output.

1.4. Apraxia of speech (AOS)

1.4.1. Motor speech disorder. It involves impaired planning or programming of movements that prevents accurate production of sounds and syllables across words or within multisyllabic words.

1.4.2. most often results from left hemisphere stroke

1.4.3. AOS presents as the only or predominant symptom of a neurodegenerative condition, it is termed primary progressive AOS (PPAOS)

1.5. Speech Intelligibility

1.5.1. unintelligible due to... post-stroke dysarthria orofacial dyskinesia speech impairment accompanying TD -- deficits common in timing, phonation and articulation edentulous orodyskinesia Older adult patients can exhibit choreic-like movements of the lips, tongue, and jaw associated with ill-fitting dentures or lack of dentures Parkinson's disease dysarthria hypophonia tachyphemia



2.1.1. Verbal - Vocally Disruptive Behavior aka over-vocalizing, verbal agitation, inappropriate vocalizations, disruptive vocalizing abusive/threatening speech perseveration, repetitive and inappropriate requests, persistent screaming/moaning, repetitive speech, repetitious questioning perseverative speech continuous chattering, muttering, singing or humming profane/vulgar speech nonverbal emotional vocalizations grunting and bizarre noise-making

2.1.2. Motor Behaviors Involunatary Voluntary Deficits Apraxia Dysphagia


2.2.1. combativeness combative behavior, seemingly unmotivated/untriggered, i.e. random e.g. patient who randomly strikes another patient

2.2.2. physical resistance physical resistance to care combative with hands-on attempts to prevent falling combative with care i.e. physical resistance to care, but without attempting to harm caregiver(s) sometimes specific to a certain type of care; sometimes non-specific, i.e. will resist any hands-on care physical resistance to redirection, e.g. physically resisting redirection from entering others rooms or personal space


2.3.1. sex talk making explicit sexual comments, overt requests for sexual activity making obscene gestures

2.3.2. sexual acts exhibitionism assault - touching body parts of another person masturbating in inappropriate times/settings intentionally exposing genitals, breasts (female), or buttocks, to another person - behavior appears premeditated and deliberate (versus non-sexual disrobing)

2.3.3. implied sexual acts openly reading pornographic material requesting unnecessary genital care

2.4. Feeding

2.4.1. refusal to eat

2.4.2. inability to self-feed often 2/2 apraxia

2.5. Hygiene

2.5.1. refusal to bathe/shower

2.5.2. toileting behaviors urinating or defecating in places other than the bathroom

2.6. “Sundowning” AKA nocturnal delirium, various definitions include:

2.6.1. temporal pattern of agitation, temporally associated agitation

2.6.2. recurring pattern of psychomotor agitation, confusion, and wandering in the evening

2.6.3. temporally specific pattern of recurring disruptive behaviors

2.6.4. disrupted sleep-wake cycle

3. Thought Process

3.1. confused, bewildered, disorganized

3.2. bradyphrenia, slowed thoughts (often manifest with speech latency)

3.3. circumstantial, tangential, loose associations, flight of ideas

3.4. Memory impairment

3.4.1. Confabulation memory error defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive Versus the CONSCIOUS process of purposeful producing overly vague and/or irrelevant speech (fluently 'talking around' the topic) in order to obfuscate one's cognitive deficits from the interviewer (due to retained insight of one's memory impairment).

3.5. Agnosia

3.5.1. food agnosia perceptual and spatial deficits resulting in difficulties recognizing food and utensils



4.1.1. AUDITORY MISPERCEPTIONS AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS CAUSES Subtypes nonpsychotic auditory hallucinations Auditory release hallucinations (Auditory Charles Bonnet syndrome) Pseudohallucinations AKA hallucinosis Involuntary sensory experience perceived as a hallucination but also recognized as a hallucination (I.e. reality sense intact) Experienced as unreal; vivid but circumscribed for other accurate perceptions thought echo patient hears his/her thoughts spoken aloud, sometimes not psychotic, but rather some people vividly experience their own thoughts) Vividly experiencing one’s own thoughts as having sound

4.1.2. VISUAL MISPERCEPTIONS VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS CAUSES nonpsychotic visual hallucinations Visual Release Hallucinations (Charles Bonnet syndrome) Dementia-Related Visual Impairment Cortical Visual Dysfunction Illusion a mistaken sense perception (visual or auditory); the sensory input is there, but it is misinterpreted



4.2.1. Feeling of Presence (FP) Common in patients with Parkinson's disease a.k.a. "extracampine hallucination" the vivid sensation that somebody (distinct from oneself) is present nearby; presence of a silent, emotionally neutral human, perceived not as a visual hallucination but as a vague feeling of somebody being near

4.2.2. misidentification syndromes Definition Delusional Misidentification is a delusional interpretation that an acquaintance or familiar object has changed into a different person or object, types Mirrored-Self Misidentification Capgras (“imposter”) syndrome Fregoli syndrome Nurturing syndrome phantom boarder syndrome Reduplicative paramnesia

4.2.3. persecutory/paranoid 73% of delusions in AD common --> someone is stealing things/money

4.2.4. delusions of infidelity 9.5% of delusions in AD

4.2.5. hypochondriasis/somatic 1.4% of delusions in AD

4.2.6. Temporal Disorientation misremember remote events as recent OR revert to themselves in a previous time (of note temporal disorientation can masquerade as AVH to caregivers, as patients describe remote events as recent, caregivers often minutes interpret that as patient having recently heard or seen someone, when in fact the patient was simply recalling a remote memory) dead relatives being still alive fluctuating temporal disorientation is considered as the hallmark of delirium

4.2.7. Delusional Perception linking a normal sensory perception to a bizarre conclusion, e.g. seeing an airplane means the patient is the president