Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer

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Breast Cancer by Mind Map: Breast Cancer

1. Treatment

1.1. surgery

1.1.1. lumpectomy

1.1.2. masectomy

1.2. radiation

1.3. chemotherapy

1.4. hormone therapy

1.5. biologic therapy

2. Risk Factors

2.1. race

2.1.1. age <41y/o

2.1.1.1. Black

2.1.2. age >40y/o

2.1.2.1. White

2.2. family hx

2.2.1. first degree relative (mother/sister, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations)

2.3. previous medical hx

2.3.1. mammary hyperplasia

2.3.2. mammary papilloma

2.3.3. ductal carcinoma

2.3.4. lobular carcinoma

2.4. estrogen exposure

2.5. pregnancy

2.5.1. non-child bearing

2.5.2. first pregnancy >35y/o

2.6. radiation

2.7. obesity & increased height

2.8. diet & alcohol

2.9. social

2.9.1. smoking

2.9.2. higher socioeconomic status

2.9.3. low physical activity

2.10. environmental

2.10.1. excess radiation

2.10.2. chemical carcinogens

2.10.3. infectious agents

3. Diagnostic Tests

3.1. clinical breast exam

3.2. mammogram

3.3. ultrasound

3.4. MRI

3.5. biopsy

3.6. hormone receptor assays

3.7. gene expression profiling

4. Common Findings

4.1. pain

4.2. anemia

4.3. fatigue

4.4. leukopenia

4.5. thrombocytopenia

4.6. infection

4.7. anorexia

4.8. muscle wasting

4.9. thermogenesis

4.10. altered heart/liver function

4.11. altered nutrition & metabolism

5. Clinical Manifestations

5.1. Initial

5.1.1. painless lump

5.1.2. palpable nodes in axilla

5.1.3. tissue retraction/dimpling

5.1.4. bone pain representing metastasis to vertebrae

5.2. further manifestations

5.2.1. chest pain

5.2.2. dilated blood vessels

5.2.3. edema

5.2.4. edema of the arm

5.2.5. hemorrhage

5.2.6. local pain

5.2.7. nipple/areolar eczema

5.2.8. nipple discharge in nonlactating women

5.2.9. nipple retraction

5.2.10. pitting of the skin

5.2.11. reddened skin, local tenderness, and warmth

5.2.12. ulceration

6. Pathophysiology

6.1. environmental and genetic factors

6.1.1. ductus/lobular carcinoma in situ lesion

6.1.1.1. infiltrating immune cells of stromal tissue and microenvironmental influences

6.1.1.1.1. chronic inflammation