Organic Compounds

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Organic Compounds by Mind Map: Organic Compounds

1. Hydrocarbons

1.1. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons

1.1.1. Alkane

1.1.1.1. Saturated Hydrocarbon

1.1.1.2. Cyclic Alkane

1.1.1.3. Naming

1.1.1.3.1. Root: based on # of carbons

1.1.1.4. Combustion Reactions

1.1.1.4.1. Incomplete Combustion

1.1.1.4.2. Complete Combustion

1.1.1.5. Halogenation (Substitution)

1.1.1.5.1. Produces Alkyl Halides

1.1.1.6. Elimination

1.1.1.6.1. Produces Alkenes / Alkynes

1.1.1.7. Alkyl Group

1.1.1.7.1. remove "ane" and replace with "yl"

1.1.1.8. Parent Alkane

1.1.1.8.1. The Longest Carbon Chain: giving Alkanes their base name

1.1.1.9. Alkyl Halides

1.1.1.9.1. Hydrogen is replaced by 1+ Halogen atoms

1.1.2. Alkene

1.1.2.1. Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

1.1.2.2. Naming

1.1.2.2.1. Root:

1.1.2.3. Cyclic Alkene

1.1.2.4. Isomers

1.1.2.4.1. Structural

1.1.2.4.2. Stereoisomerism

1.1.2.5. Addition Reaction

1.1.2.5.1. Hydrogenation (H2)

1.1.2.5.2. Halogenation (Cl2)

1.1.2.5.3. Hydrohalogenation (HCl)

1.1.2.5.4. Hydration (H2O)

1.1.3. Alkyne

1.1.3.1. Unsaturated Hydrocarbon

1.1.3.2. Cyclic Alkene

1.1.3.3. Naming

1.1.3.3.1. Root: based on # of carbon

1.1.3.4. Addition Reaction

1.1.3.4.1. Hydrogenation

1.1.3.4.2. Halogenation

1.1.3.4.3. Hydrohalogenation

1.1.3.4.4. Hydration

1.1.4. Homologous Series

1.2. Aromatic Hydrocarbon

1.2.1. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

1.2.2. Benzene Ring (C6H6)

1.2.3. Phenyl Group (C6H5)

1.2.4. Naming

1.2.4.1. Root: benzene, phenyl

1.2.4.1.1. Prefix: mono, di, tri

1.2.5. Addition Reaction (Substitution)

2. Alcohol

2.1. Hydroxyl Group (OH)

2.2. Types Of Alcohol

2.2.1. Primary Alcohol

2.2.2. Secondary Alcohol

2.2.3. Tertiary Alcohol

2.3. Naming

2.3.1. Root: # of carbon

2.3.1.1. Prefix; mono, di, tri

2.3.1.1.1. Suffix: "ol"

2.4. Addition Reaction

2.4.1. Alkene/ Alkyne produces an Alcohol

2.5. Dehydration Reaction

2.5.1. Alcohol produces an Alkene/ Alkyne

2.6. Substitution Reaction

2.6.1. Alcohol Produces an Alkyl Halide

2.7. Hydrocarbon Derivative

3. Ethers

3.1. Alkoxy Group (R-O)

3.2. Naming

3.2.1. Root: name of shorter parent chain

3.2.1.1. Prefix: mono, di ,tri

3.2.1.1.1. Suffix: "oxy"

3.3. Condensation Reaction

3.3.1. 2 molecules combine to form a large molecule and small one

4. Aldehydes

4.1. Formyl Group (H-C=O)

4.2. Naming

4.2.1. Root: # of carbon atoms

4.2.1.1. Prefix: mono, di, tri

4.2.1.1.1. Suffix: "al"

4.3. Oxidization Reaction

4.3.1. Primary Alcohol + (O) = Aldehyde + Water

4.4. Reduction

4.5. Addition Reaction (Hydrogenation)

4.5.1. Aldehyde + H2 = Primary Alcohol

4.6. Hydrocabon Derivative

5. Ketone

5.1. Carbonyl Group (C=O)

5.2. Naming

5.2.1. Root: # of carbon in parent

5.2.1.1. Prefix: mono, di, tri

5.2.1.1.1. Suffix:"one"

5.3. Oxidization Reaction

5.3.1. Secondary Alcohol + (O) = Ketone

5.4. Reduction

5.5. Addition Reaction (Hydrogenation)

5.5.1. Ketone + H2 = Secondary Alcohol

5.6. Hydrocabon Derivative

6. Carboxylic Acid

6.1. Carboxyl Group (COOH)

6.2. Naming

6.2.1. Root: # of carbon in parent

6.2.1.1. Prefix: mono, di, tri

6.2.1.1.1. Suffix: "oic acid"

6.3. Oxidization Reaction

6.3.1. Primary Alcohol + (O) = Aldehyde + (O) = Carboxylic Acid

6.4. Reduction

7. Esters

7.1. Naming

7.1.1. Root: alcohol name + acid name

7.1.1.1. Prefix: mono, di, tri

7.1.1.1.1. Suffix

7.2. Esterification

7.2.1. Acid + Alcohol = Ester + Water

7.3. Hydrolysis

7.3.1. Ester + Acid/ Base = Acid + Single Atom

8. Amine

8.1. Derived from Ammonia (NH3)

8.2. Naming

8.2.1. Root: longest # of carbon chain

8.2.1.1. Prefix: N or mono, di, tri

8.2.1.1.1. Suffix: "amine"

8.3. Substitution Reaction

8.3.1. Alkyl Halide + Ammonia = Primary Amine

8.3.2. Alkyl Halide + Primary Amine = Secondary Amine

8.3.3. Alkyl Halide + Secondary Amine = Tertiary Amine

9. Amide

9.1. Naming

9.1.1. Root: amine + acid

9.1.1.1. Prefix: mono, di, tri

9.1.1.1.1. Suffix: "amide"

9.2. Condensation Reaction

9.2.1. Acid + Ammonia = Primary Amide + Water

9.2.2. Acid + Primary Amine = Secondary Amide + Water

9.2.3. Acid + Secondary Amine = Tertiary Amide + Water

9.3. Hydrolysis

9.3.1. Amide + Acid/Base = Acid + Amine

10. Polymer

10.1. Monomer:

10.1.1. Small molecules that make up the polymer

10.2. Plastic

10.3. Addition Polymerization

10.3.1. reaction between monomers and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds.

10.4. Condensation

10.4.1. A molecule formed as a result of condensation between monomers and two functional group

10.5. Polymerization

10.5.1. When monomers combine chemically to form polymers

10.6. Petrochemical

10.6.1. Are chemical products obtained from petroleum by refining.