Antibiotics

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Antibiotics by Mind Map: Antibiotics

1. Inhibit cell wall synthesis

1.1. B-Lactam drugs

1.1.1. Penicillins

1.1.1.1. Cloxacillin(methicillin) & oxacillin

1.1.1.1.1. Used against gram+ve bacteria resistant to penicillin and ampicillin

1.1.1.2. Amoxacillin + clavulinic acid (b-lactamase inhibitor) broad spectrum & penicillinase resistant

1.1.2. Cephalosporins

1.1.2.1. 1st Generation

1.1.2.1.1. Cefalexin

1.1.2.1.2. Cefalotin

1.1.2.1.3. Cefazoline

1.1.2.1.4. Cefradine

1.1.2.2. 2nd Generation (broad spectrum)

1.1.2.2.1. Cefaclor

1.1.2.2.2. Cefuroxime

1.1.2.3. 3rd Generation

1.1.2.3.1. Cefdinir

1.1.2.3.2. Cefixime

1.1.2.3.3. Ceftriaxone

1.1.2.3.4. Ceftazidime

1.1.2.4. 4th Generation

1.1.2.4.1. Cefepime

1.1.2.5. 5th Generation

1.1.2.5.1. Used against MRSA and Gram +ve bacteria

1.1.3. Carbapenems

1.1.4. Monobactams

1.2. Non B-Lactam drugs

1.2.1. Polypeptides

1.2.1.1. Bacitracin

1.2.2. Glycopeptides (gram+ve)

1.2.2.1. Vanomycin

1.2.2.2. Teicoplanin

1.2.3. Cycloserine , ethionamide , isoniazid

1.2.3.1. Mycobacteria

2. Inhibit protein synthesis

2.1. Aminoglycosides (binds to 30S unit =distort and malfunction ;blocks initiation of translation)

2.1.1. Gentamicin

2.1.2. Amikacin

2.1.3. Streptomycin

2.2. Tetracyclines

2.3. Macrolides

2.3.1. Chloramphenicol

2.3.2. Erythromycin

3. Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis

3.1. Quinolones & Fluroquinolones (inhibit DNA gyrase that maintains the supercoiling of closed circular DNA thus inhibiting DNA replication &transcription)

3.1.1. Norfloxacin

3.1.2. Ciprofloxacin

3.1.3. Levofloxacin

3.2. Rifamycin

3.3. Metronidazole

3.4. Fusidic acid

4. Injury to plasma membrane

4.1. Colistin/polymyxen B

4.1.1. G-ve

4.2. Antifungal drugs

5. Inhibit synthesis of essential metabolites (competitive)

5.1. Sulfonamides (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)

5.1.1. Analogue to PABA

5.1.1.1. Prevents folic acid synthesis

5.1.1.1.1. Useful against UTIs

5.2. Antituberculous drugs

5.2.1. Inhibition of mycolic acid

5.3. Metronidazole

5.3.1. Anti protozoa and anaerobic bacteria