Physical Patterns

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Physical Patterns by Mind Map: Physical Patterns

1. Landforms

1.1. Active valcanos

1.1.1. Active volcanoes are caused when there is a crack in the earths crust. Which then allows magma in the crack( which is now the pipe. Then when there is hardened material blocking the magma ,pressure builds up causing exterme tension. After since the pressure is so exterme the top of the mountain breaks and causes a eruption. Active volcanoes

1.2. Shield regions

1.2.1. Long ago someone named Alfred Wegener had a theory that once all the continents where joined together called Pangaea. Also there were shield regions all around Pangaea.

1.2.2. Shield regions were created by volcanic activity long long ago. Technically what happened was the magma form volcanoes hardened and then caused it to turn into igneous rock. Afterwards, the igneous rock turned into medephophic rock which again is hardened igneous rock. However, soon Pangaea had broken apart, which caused the shield regions to be scattered everywhere. An example of a shield region is the one shown here with is the Canadian shield. SHIELD REGIONS

1.3. Fold mountains

1.3.1. Fold mountains are made out of layers of sedimentary rock.Then as years go by layers start ti fold,but rocks don't bend like a carpet. All that happens is the when it tries to bend, the rock breaks causing a earthquake.Sometimes the rock turns into metamorphic rock because there was too much pressure while trying to fold. Fold mountains

1.4. Plains and lowlands

1.4.1. Plains and lowlands are created by horizontal layer of sedimentary rocks.Plains are leveled land and lowlands are plains that are near coastlines. Plains and lowlands

2. Climate

2.1. The effect of latitude

2.1.1. Latitude effects a lot with temperature everywhere. Latitude separates the continents apart into sections. When the sun's rays hit different places it changes the temperatures around the world.To make it hotter in some places and colder in others. Examples of these climates are polar,tropical and temperate climate. TROPICAL CLIMATES Tropical climate are easy to guess what they are from looking at the word 'tropical'. Tropical climates are the places where it it hot. These places are near the equator.It is hot their because of the sun's radiation. It is usually wet and hot every season. Polar climate Polar climates are climates that are very cold like as you would have guessed where Santa lives. Yes, you guessed it the north pole but polar climates are in the south pole too. The general area where there is polar climate is in Siberia. It is cold there because the sun's rays hits the land then hits back upwards masking the land cold. It is extremely cold their in winters and in summers it is less colder in summers. TEMPERATE CLIMATES Temperate climate is a climate that is at a constant temperature. Which means it is warm there,warmer in January and cooler in July.This is because since the earth is curved the sunlight is it not making those areas so hot. These climates are located between the equator and the south pole.

2.2. The effect of moving air

2.2.1. Air also plays a big role in temperature because cool air is heavier than warm air and it sinks.However warmer rises and is light. Therefore, if you touch the floor of where you are it will be cooler than stretching your arm up.Air is more dense near the equator rather then away form the equator. An example of this is desert climate. Desert climate Dessert climates are in the areas like South Africa.It rains near the equator and the rain water moves north and south.Then the air cools and turns into wind,then the wind turns into dry air.After since the areas are dry because of the dry air there is no rain and clouds.However it is dry and hot. Desert Climates

2.3. The effect of water bodies

2.3.1. Maritime and continental climates are involved with water bodies. Maritime is warmer in the summertime and cool in wintertime. They are near large bodies of water and have precipitation. Maritime Climates

2.3.2. Continental climates on the other hand have hot summers and cold winters,like Canada.However, it is much drier than maritime. Continental Climates

2.4. The effect of mountains

2.4.1. Mountain climates they are located where mountains are found and have plenty of precipitation.Again they have hot summers and cold winters. It is more chilly than places that are located lower.These places have a weight load of precipitation and are near bodies of water. Mountain climates

2.5. The effect of ocean currents

2.5.1. The effect of ocean currents is since areas near the equator are warmer ,warmer ocean waters are moved away from the equator.The cold waters move toward the equator. What happens next is the temperatures change. Ocean currents

3. Natural disasters

3.1. Eathquakes

3.1.1. Earthquakes occur when the earths plates rub on each other. eathquakes

3.1.2. When the plates rub on each other the plates start to build up pressure in the epicenter,which is he most intense part because most of the tension is there. When the epicener is released a huge load is released, producing a earthquake.

3.2. Tsunamis

3.2.1. Tsunami'sare cause by under water earthquakes tsunami

3.2.2. What happens is a flood in the water

3.2.3. When the plates rub on each other they start build up pressure in the epicenter, which is the most intense part. When the epicenter is released a huge amount of pressure is released causing a flood in the water.

3.3. Tornadoes

3.3.1. Tornadoes happen when warm air and cool air collide.Then the warm air wraps itself around the cool air then the warm air starts to spin, which now is called the vortex. tornadoes

3.4. Tropical storms

3.4.1. Most tropical storms involve water such as typhoons,cyclones and hurricanes. tropical storms

3.4.2. Hurricanes are caused when humid/warm air from the ocean rises fast and the water from the ocean evaporates and collide together. here is a you tube video that will help you understand what a hurricane is. Here it is: After the air and vapor collide like a tornado because a hurricane starts spinning but in water. This causes thunderstorms, which lead to even more heat and then it rises higher and then the official hurricane is made.

4. Agriculture

4.1. Intensive farming

4.1.1. Intensive farming is moistly done in South America.They grow rice, vegetables and poultry. They do a lot of labor to get their food from farmland.

4.2. Extensive farming

4.2.1. Extensive farming is done in North America.They grow wheat, corn and beef cattle. This farming uses less labor because they mostly use machines and use big farms.

4.3. Subsistence agriculture

4.3.1. Subsistence farming is when the farmer only grows enough crops for their family. Nomadic herders Nomadic herders work in Africa,Central Asia and Middle East. They value goats,camels and cattle.They values those animals because they live in deserted areas.They do this because goats and camels produce milk for them and their hair and skin are used for tents and clothes. Sometimes they even trade these species for coffee and small oases. Also, they are hoping each day to find grass and water for these animals. Nomadic herders Shifting cultivators Shifting cultivators are farmers that farm in the rain forests in Africa,South America and South Asia. What they do is they grow root crops like yams,cassava,corn and other grains.As soon as the land is not worth anything and the soil is not fertile they clear it out with fires and machetes.Later, all they do is find a new location to start this process again. Shifting cultivators Small landholders Small landholders farm in Mexico, South America ,South Asia and Africa.These farmers are not like Shifting cultivators who move from place to place Small landholders stay at their small lands forever. Also they are hard workers and everyone contributes to the work.They provide themselves with corn,rice, vegetables and other grains. Weather is a huge part in their lives because if the conditions are bad they don't get enough food.In addition, they trade off their goods to markets near by. Small landholders


5.1. Tornadoes

5.1.1. Did you know that ever tornado has it'sown colour,shape and size?

5.1.2. Did you know that most tornadoes happen between 3-9pm?

5.1.3. Here is a website to youtube about tornadoes:

5.2. Tsunamis

5.2.1. Did you know that the word tsunamis came from the Japanese words ' harbor wave'?

5.2.2. Did you know that sometimes when a tsunamis occurs the floor of the ocean is revealed?

5.3. Hurricanes

5.3.1. Did you know that the center of a hurricane is called a eye?

5.3.2. Did you know that a hurricane is less powerful when it reaches land?

6. Interesting Facts About Agriculture

6.1. New node

7. Interesting Fact About Climates

7.1. New node