Audiology

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Audiology by Mind Map: Audiology

1. CASLPO

1.1. Guidelines

1.2. Standards

1.3. Essentials for assessment

2. The Outer Ear

2.1. Pinna

2.1.1. Disorders

2.1.1.1. Anotia/microtia

2.1.1.2. keloids

2.1.1.3. tumour

2.1.1.4. periocondritus

2.1.1.5. hematoma

2.2. EAC

2.2.1. Disorders

2.2.1.1. stenosis

2.2.1.2. atresia

2.2.1.3. mastoiditis

2.2.1.4. otomicosis

2.3. Tympanic Membrane

2.3.1. Disorders

2.3.1.1. perforation

2.3.1.2. thickening

2.3.1.3. myringitis

3. The Middle Ear

3.1. The Ossicles

3.1.1. Malleus

3.1.1.1. head and neck

3.1.1.2. 3 processes

3.1.1.2.1. manubrium

3.1.1.2.2. anterior process

3.1.1.2.3. lateral process

3.1.2. Incus

3.1.2.1. body

3.1.2.2. 2 processes

3.1.2.2.1. anticular fasset

3.1.2.2.2. lenticular process

3.1.3. Stapes

3.1.3.1. smallest bone in the human body

3.1.3.2. 2 crura

3.1.3.2.1. posterior

3.1.3.2.2. anterior

3.2. 2 windows

3.2.1. Round

3.2.1.1. opens to basal turn of the Scala tympani

3.2.2. Oval

3.2.2.1. opening to inner ear

3.3. Muscles that support the ossicles

3.3.1. Stapedious

3.3.2. Tensor Tympani

3.4. Eustachian Tube

3.4.1. 36mm

3.4.2. vents middle ear to nasopharynx

3.4.3. opens every min while awake, every 5 mins while sleeping

3.5. Disorders

3.5.1. Otitis Media

3.5.1.1. infection of mucous lining

3.5.2. facial palsy

3.5.3. barotrauma

3.5.4. cholesteotoma

3.5.5. otosclorosis

3.5.6. ossicle deformities

4. Hearing Loss

4.1. Conductive

4.1.1. associated with middle or outer ear

4.1.2. Normal bone conduction, abnormal air conduction

4.2. Sensory Neural

4.2.1. associated with inner ear

4.2.2. MADS is a form of this (chronic form of otitis media)

4.2.3. abnormal air and bone conduction results, no air-bone gap

4.3. Mixed

4.3.1. abnormal air and bone conduction results, there is an airbone gap

5. treatments

5.1. antibiotics

5.2. myringotomy

5.3. mastoidectomy

5.4. tympanometry

5.5. spaedectomy

5.6. stapes mobilization

6. The inner Ear

6.1. Vestibular

6.1.1. balance

6.1.1.1. motion sickness

6.1.1.2. vertigo

6.1.2. managed in cerebellum

6.2. Cochlear

6.2.1. hearing

6.2.2. transmission of mechanical energy

6.2.3. unrolled cochlea diagram

6.3. Vestibular System

6.3.1. 3 semicircular canals

6.3.2. utricle and saccule

6.3.3. perilymph, endolymph

7. NIHL

7.1. prolonged exposure to loud noises

7.2. use earphones not earbuds

8. Auditory Pathway

8.1. Internal auditory canal

8.2. Cochlear nucleus

8.3. Superior olivary complex

8.4. Lateral liminiscus

8.5. Inferior colliculus

8.6. Medulla Oblongata

8.7. Auditory complex

8.8. Brain

9. Auditory Nerve DIsorders

9.1. Symptoms

9.1.1. tinnitus

9.1.2. high frequency hearing loss

9.1.3. unilateral loss

9.1.4. excessive speech recognition difficulties

9.2. Sensory Neural Hearing Loss

9.3. Acoustic Neuroma

9.3.1. affects 8th cranial nerve

9.3.2. affects both ipso and contra lateral acoustic reflex

9.3.3. treatment

9.3.3.1. wait and see

9.3.3.2. observation

9.3.3.3. surgery

10. Testing

10.1. Pure Tone Audiometry

10.1.1. Pressure applied to one side

10.2. Speech Audiometry

10.2.1. can indicate a problem along the auditory pathway

10.3. OAE

10.3.1. measures sounds that echo back from hair cells

11. Medical Imaging

11.1. PET

11.2. MRI

11.3. CT

12. CAPD

12.1. Caused by middle ear otitis media

12.2. obscure auditory dysfunction

12.3. ability to comprehend spoken langauge

12.4. slow to respond

13. Physical Examination

13.1. Visual

13.1.1. looking for any discolouration or physical deformities

13.2. Otoscope

13.2.1. perfortation

13.2.2. debris

13.2.3. stenosis

13.2.4. excessive cerumen

13.2.5. foreign bodies

13.2.6. external otitis

13.2.7. thickening of the tympanic membrane

14. Physiological Testing

14.1. Involuntary stimulus with an automatic response

14.1.1. OAE

14.1.2. Immittance

14.1.3. ABR

15. Behavioural Testing

15.1. Subject makes a voluntary response when a signal is presented

15.1.1. Pure tone

15.1.2. Speech Audiometry

16. Masking

16.1. used to ensure that there is no crossover between ears

17. Acoustic imittance testing

17.1. Static acoustic compliance

17.2. acoustic reflex

17.3. tympanometry