The War of 1812

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The War of 1812 by Mind Map: The War of 1812

1. Major Events of War

1.1. 1. June 1812 - The United States declared war on Great Britain.

1.2. 2. July 1812 - American army, led by General Hull, crossed Detroit River and entered Upper Canada. Few people in Upper Canada were interested in joining the Americans.

1.3. 3. July 1812 - A small number of British soldiers, fur traders, and Native allies captured Fort Michilimackinac. This, combined with the news of British reinforcements on their way, resulted in Hull's decision to return to Detroit.

1.4. 4. August 1812 - British commander General Brock was victorious at Detroit. General Hull believed Brock had gathered many Native fighters that outnumbered his army greatly, so he surrendered. General Hull passed his sword to Brock to show the surrender of the American army. Hull's surrender prevented Americans from invading from the Western end of Upper Canada.

1.5. 5. October 1812 - The Battle of Queenston Heights took place. General Brock was killed, and Queenston Heights was taken from the Americans.

1.6. 6. November 20, 1812 - Salaberry's militia and 300 Native llies turned back Major-General Dearborn and his 6000 men from their invasion of Lower Canada.

1.7. 7. April 1813 - Americans captured York, the capital of Upper Canada. Parliament buildings were burned by the Yankees.

1.8. 8. June 1813 - Naval battle.

1.9. 9. June 1813 - The British at Stoney Creek stopped American advance into Niagra Peninsula. Battle at Beaver Dams.

1.10. 10. September 1813 - Americans destroyed British naval power on Lake Erie. Britain's naval domination of the upper Great Lakes ended.

1.11. 11. October 1813 - American victory at Battle of Thames River near Moraviantown. Chief Tecumseh was killed.

1.12. 12. October 1813 - At the Battle of Chateauguay, American forces retreated from the British and Canadian force.

1.13. 13. November 1813 - Canadian militiamen, British soldiers, and First Nations allies defeated an American army of 7000 soldiers.

1.14. 14. December 1813 - Americans set fire to the town of Newark.

1.15. 15. May 1814 - British Naval Fleet captured American Fort Oswego.

1.16. 16. July 1814 - Battle of Lundy's Lane. No victory. Americans retreated to Fort Erie.

1.17. 17. August 1814 - Washingon occupied for one day by the British. President's mansion scorched by fire. Repainted white. Called "White House" ever since.

1.18. 18. September 1814 - Sir Goerge Prevost led British south; They were defeated at Plattsburg on Lake Champlain.

1.19. 19. December 1814 - Treaty of Ghent (Peace Treaty).

1.20. 20. January 1815. Battle of New Orleans. Andrew Jackson won a victory for the Americans. He did not know that the peace treaty had been signed.

2. Results of War

2.1. American immigrants were discouraged from coming to British North America. British immigrants were encouraged, as it was felt that the immigrants would be willing to fight in case the Americans decided to invide again.

2.2. The Border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th Parallel.

2.3. Great Lakes freed from military control.

2.4. Great Britain began to recognize the United States as a separate nation, although there was still distrust.

2.5. People in Upper and Lower Canada had to co-operate during the war. This brought a sense of pride and unity.

2.6. Native allies were no longer needed for military purposes. The British government decided to assimilate the Native peoples, who were no longer need for military purposes.

2.7. Trade was increased along the St. Lawrence - Great Lakes route.

2.8. The Rideau Canal was first proposed as an alternative route between Montreal and the Great Lakes.

2.9. The Atlantic colonies enjoyed a period of prosperity during the war. They were able to continue their trade with neighbouring New England states.

3. Heroes and Roles they Played

3.1. Sir Isaac Brock (1769 - 1812)

3.1.1. Was a British Army Officer

3.1.2. Served in the West Indies and in Holland before coming to British North America.

3.1.3. Showed that with determination and planning, it was possible to defeat the Americans.

3.1.4. Had great respect for Tecumseh. Defeated the Americans at Detroit together.

3.2. Laura Secord (1775 - 1868)

3.2.1. Lived in Queenston

3.2.2. Overheard American soldiers discussing a surprise attack on the British. Laura decided to warn the British command, Fitzgibbon, and risked her life to help the British as she walked 23 kilometres across fields and through forests.

3.2.3. The attack occurred as planned, but the Americans surrendered to Fitzgibbon.

3.3. Tecumseh (1768 - 1813)

3.3.1. Was a well respected Native leader.

3.3.2. Wanted to protect the Native lands from Americans.

3.3.3. Helped General Brock capture Detroit in 1812. Was killed in battle.

3.3.4. Had great respect for General Brock. Defeated the Americans at Detroit together.

3.4. Charles de Salaberry (1778 - 1829)

3.4.1. Born in Quebec, was an experienced officer in the British Army.

3.4.2. Ambushed the Americans along Chateauguay River. His troops made so much noise that the Americans believed they were confronted by a much larger army, and so they turned around and went home.

3.4.3. He prevented the Americans from attacking Montreal, as well as preventing the Americans from attacking Montreal.

3.5. Catherine Lundy

3.5.1. The battle of Lundy's Lane took place near the Lundy family property near Niagara Falls.

3.5.2. Rather than fleeing, Catherine gave drinking water to thirsty soldiers, and tended wounds after the battle.

3.5.3. Following the battle, Catherine was honoured by a visit from a British officer, who presented her with his sword.

4. Causes of War

4.1. Britain and France had been at war in Europe for nearly 20 years.

4.2. As a result, European ports were blockaded.

4.3. Americans, who were neutral, were angered because they could not sell goods or deliver cargo to blockaded ports.

4.4. The British stopped American ships and suspected British workers working on American ships were taken back to Britain. A number of Americans who were not British were taken this way. This also was a source of "Friction" between the countries.

4.5. Good farmland in America was expensive, but in British North America, plenty of good, inexpensive farmland was available.

4.6. The British felt that if they could take over British North America, there would be less resistance from the Native peoples.

4.7. The British still had not accepted the Americans as political equals. The British looked upon the United States as a colony, and not as a full sovereign nation. The Americans reasoned that if they were equals, the British would not take sailors off American ships. They felt that one nation should not treat another nation in such a manner.