Emerging Technologies 2020

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Emerging Technologies 2020 by Mind Map: Emerging Technologies 2020

1. Technologies

1.1. Augmented and Virtual Reality

1.1.1. Technologies Immersive Virtual Reality Prompts Immediacy 3D VR Potentially less cognitive load Non-Immersive Virtual Reality 2D VR Does Not prompt Immediacy Augmented Reality Prompts Immediacy Potentially less cognitive load

1.1.2. AR Examples Medical student patient empathy practice Show forces in play during an experiement Historical information at landmarks

1.1.3. Applications Military K-12 (more research would need to be done to verify how young these technologies have been applied) College Workplace

1.1.4. VR Use Cases Difficult or dangerous to recreate situations Distance collaboration Therapeutic interventions

1.1.5. AR Use Cases Just in time job aid Display of normally invisible data/information Distance collaboration Informal learning scaffolding

1.1.6. VR Examples Classroom Astronot expereince Medical practitioners practicing surgical procedures Classroom Eutrophication Scenario

1.2. Mobile, Wireless, and Ubiquitous

1.2.1. Tablet computer

1.2.2. Smart phone

1.2.3. Smart Speaker Alexa Siri Google home

1.2.4. Augmented Reality holo lens iOS use of AR Google glass

1.2.5. Chat platforms WeChat WhatsApp

1.3. Blended

1.3.1. Communications Concepts Cognitive Presence Social Presence Teaching Prescence Email Discussion Boards/Forums Live chat Blogs/message boards

1.3.2. Social Networking

1.3.3. Wiki’s

1.3.4. E-portfolios

1.3.5. AR

1.3.6. Webinars/video conferencing

1.3.7. Podcasting

1.4. Social and Participatory

1.4.1. YouTube

1.4.2. Snapchat

1.4.3. Facebook

1.4.4. Website

1.4.5. LinkedIN

1.4.6. Research Gate

1.4.7. Blog

1.4.8. Venmo

1.4.9. Twitter

1.4.10. LMS

1.5. Interactive and Global

1.5.1. LMS’s

1.5.2. Social Media Facebook Twitter

1.5.3. Online document editing Google Docs O365

1.5.4. Wiki’s

1.5.5. Discussion forums

1.5.6. Video Youtube Video conferencing tools Voicethread

1.5.7. Email

2. Types of Learning

2.1. Active Learning

2.1.1. Examples GoNorth! the Jason Project The World of Wonders Blue Zones Expedschools eField Trips

2.1.2. Alternative Terminology for AL virtual/electronic field trips adventure-education outdoor education online expeditions

2.1.3. Further Research Applications for higher ED Teacher attributes to determine success of AL Skill transfer from AL to real world Applications in Standards based environment Affects of cross cultural collaboration

2.1.4. Integration Models curriculum-based activities-based standards-based media-based

2.1.5. Attributes Conectivist Framework Authentic experiences Social Engagement Collaboration Guided by Technology Enhanced by Technology Experiential learning Flexible

2.2. Informal Learning (IL) & Self Directed Learning (SDL)

2.2.1. Context Globally applicable MOOCs xMOOC cMOOC Various socio economic class Internal to learning platform External to learning platform

2.2.2. Theory Garrison (1997) Self-monitoring Self-management Motivation Song & Hill (2007) High level of self direction Use of learning strategies Learner responsible for assistance seeking Mitra (2019) learner-centered cognitive approaches

2.2.3. Elicit behavior Instructor Prepared learning environment Tools to guide IL & SDL TA assistance Discussion guide Guiding other Granny Cloud Peer mentors/tutor Self-Monitoring Cognition Meta Cogniton

2.3. Mobile, Wireless, and Ubiquitous learning

2.3.1. Technologies Tablet computer Smart phone Smart Speaker Alexa Siri Google home Augmented Reality holo lens iOS use of AR Google glass Chat platforms WeChat WhatsApp

2.3.2. Context Technology enabled Collaborative Predominatnly informal Local Defined communities Not necessarily spacially defined Not necessarily geographically defined Impact Obviously relative Local Transient and partial Ideas about space and time

2.3.3. Research Purposes Evaluate the effects Explore the potential Investigate the affective domain Design a system Develop a theory Influence of learner characteristics Themes (Top 5) Enabling mLearning applications & systems Socio-cultural context & implications Tools & technologies Pedagogical approaches, models & theories User studies Theoretical Backgrounds (Top 4 - 4-way tie for fourth place) Technology Acceptance Model Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Collaborative Learning Activity Theory / Systems Cognitive Load Theory Diffusion of Innovation Self-regulated / Self-managed Learning

2.4. Blended Learning

2.4.1. Future in Education F2F exclusive decreasing Blended learning environments increasing

2.4.2. Concepts Asynchronous Synchronous Between 30% - 80% online content Design Focus

2.4.3. Where did it come from Traditional Learning environment (F2F) Digital Learning

2.4.4. Technology Communications Concepts Email Discussion Boards/Forums Live chat Blogs/message boards AR Webinars/video conferencing Podcasting E-portfolios Wiki’s Social Networking

2.4.5. Contributors to the Movement Curtis Bonk Alison King Eric Mazur Norm Friesen Randy Garrison Norman Vaughan Ron Owston

2.4.6. Models F2F Primary Rotation Flex VR Online Lab Self Blend Bookend Anchor Gradual Human (F2F) Approach

2.5. Social and Participatory Learning

2.5.1. Focus Areas Social media Participatory learning Maker Space Thinking with your hands engaging with others in real time/physical space Development of creative thinking Development of problem-solving and iteration of ideas

2.5.2. Learning Concepts Social constructivist Knowledge is built in the social environment Learning between individuals with varied degrees of topic knowledge Connectivist learning Collective knowledge is held in the network Collective knowledge is created in the network Behavioral Data shows behavior patterns Data used to change behavior Constructionism relates to "making" builds on constructivist framework

2.5.3. Social Media in Learning Cost benifits Negatives Positives Examples Blog Website Facebook Snapchat LinkedIN Research Gate LMS Twitter YouTube Venmo

2.6. Interactive, Global, and Collaborative learning

2.6.1. Instructional Strategies Group work Self-introduction activities Cultural awareness activities Computer-supported learning activities Inclusion of global examples Engage learners early through pre-task exercise Pre-writing task Film prompt Senario Rubric for task Internationalized curriculum Offer needed scaffolding for task Use of cultural consultants Create environment for learners to construct knowledge Optional controversial topic discussion

2.6.2. Challenges Course design to meet unknown target learners culture Grouping students for success Language barriers Understanding surrounding non-verbal cues

2.6.3. Technologies Used Online document editing Google Docs O365 Wiki’s LMS’s Social Media Facebook Twitter Email Video Youtube Video conferencing tools Voicethread Discussion forums

2.6.4. Attributes Asynchronous Increase in Sensitivity to cultural diversity Critical thinking Social cognition Perspective taking Task engagment Synchronous Anonymity creating space to share Mitigation of learner concerns that limit contribution Difficulties arising from learners spoken accent Speed of speech vs reading Decrease in bias between learners

3. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

3.1. In the Global South

3.1.1. Design Frugal MOOC Ruggedization Lightweight Mobile enabled solutions Human specific design Simplification New distribution models Adaptation Use of local resources Green technologies Affordability Considerations Context Sustainability Cross-cultural design Human Rights Use of OERs Implementation Frugal innovations

3.1.2. Partners Government agencies Non-governmental education groups Universities Academic conferences Major MOOC providers

3.1.3. Issues Context Appropriateness of Content Internet access Literacy levels of learners Online Pedagogies Heavy global north bias Access of technologies MOOC credit transferability Bandwidth issues

3.1.4. Platforms K-MOOC jMOOC ThaiMOOC OpenLearning.com University Joint Alliance Platform Swayam MODeL IndonesiaX

3.2. Who is involved in a MOOC

3.2.1. Participants Novice Needs Scaffolding Generally not a contributor at first Expert (participated in a MOOC Before) Creation of resources

3.2.2. Facilitators Researchers Evaluation Team Instructional Designers Production Team Administrators paying for it One or more instructors or content experts Actors in videos Teaching Assistants MOOC experts and trainers Retired faculty and outside experts

3.2.3. Providers edX Coursera Udemy Udacity FutureLearn NovoEd Iversity Goodwill Open2Study SWAYAM

3.2.4. Some of the First Creators George Siemens Dave Cormier Stephens Downes Institutions Harvard M.I.T. Stanford

3.3. Context

3.3.1. A "Place" of Learning Comfortable space to share A place for activities A place for network building Tools LMS twitter blogs Elluminate Facebook gRSShopper A place for social network learning Learner to Facilitator Facilitator to Learner Learner to learner A place to collect resources Interactive OERs Videos Articles News letters that are aggregation of other resources

3.3.2. Attributes Dispersed learning Learner centered Learner driven Facilitator not always lead Types xMOOC cMOOC PD-MOOC pMOOC Flipped MOOC Issues & Quality Accreditation Plagiarism True Measurement of Engagement English Language Dominated Heavily Western Perspective Transfer of MOOC Credit to Traditional Institution Equity of Access Inappropriate Use of Copyrighted Materials Minimal Application of Instructional Design Principals Benefits Just in time learning Affordable Democratization of education Access to top professors Culturally diverse learning opportunities for students and instructors Develops instructor's skills

3.3.3. Participants Types of Participants Teachers Researchers Managers Mentors Engineers Facilitators Trainers University professors Age range of involvement 18-55+ 43.5% 55+ Globally located

3.4. Design Principles

3.4.1. Plan ahead

3.4.2. Build in opportunities for feedback

3.4.3. Create interactivity

3.4.4. Provide variation and choice

3.4.5. Combine async and sync elements

3.4.6. Segment videos and components

3.4.7. Design responsive interactive communities

3.4.8. Include self and team reflection

3.4.9. Include weekly recaps and updates

3.4.10. Business Models Free Pay For Credit Pay for Course Enhancement Pay for Certification of Completion Course Entry Fee Pay for Assessments and Graded Work Advertiser Supported User Data (revenue from) Supported Pay for Ancillary Services Membership Fee Revenue Sharing

3.4.11. Participation Patterns Similar to Social Networks Unconnected Floaters Connected Lurkers Connected Participants Active Contributors

4. Open Educational Resources

4.1. Creation and Application

4.1.1. How to Support/Encourage Adoption Funders Policies Requiring OA publications Pre-exisiting arrangements with publishers Institutions Policies Requiring OA publications Tie OA publishing to Review Process Negotiate easier OA participation with publishers Researchers Moral considerations Consider broader audience Utilize Open Repositories Contract negations with publisher to require OA Editors Encourage less restrictive archival practices Keep OA publishing and archiving as core competency Associations & Societies Convert subscription service to OA Launch new OA journals Solicit publisher bids to strengthen negations around OA David Wiley-founded Open Education Coalition Participate in redefining what this community and conference looks like in the future following its collapse in 2019

4.1.2. Applications Textbooks Published Research Open Courseware (OCW) MERLOT Connexions Japanese OCW Consortium Chinese Quality Course (CQC) Project National Cultural Information Resources Sharing Projects Science Data Sharing Project Video One Course (VOC) Project

4.1.3. Creation Time consuming not always incentivized Difficult to navigate unaware it exists

4.1.4. Types of OERs Full access (non-APC's) Gold Free to end user Hybrid option Open access Green Pre-publishing archival Potentially prior to peer review Decentralized archival repositories Temporary access Behind Paywall (pay to view)

4.1.5. Common Issues Lack of awareness about OER usage Lack of awareness about OER creation techniques Lack of awareness around purpose of OERs Difficulty in Design of Resource Consensus in the community about goals, direction, methods of the movement Lack of tenure credit Issues with Content and Teachers Curriculum

4.2. Types of assets

4.2.1. Text Books

4.2.2. Digital simulations

4.2.3. Videos

4.2.4. Podcasts

4.2.5. Test/quiz question bank

4.3. Pros

4.3.1. Electronically available

4.3.2. More accessible

4.3.3. More interactive

4.3.4. Potentially more up-to-date

4.3.5. Cost

4.3.6. Adjustable to faculties current curriculum

4.4. Principles

4.4.1. Redistribute

4.4.2. Remix

4.4.3. Revise

4.4.4. Reuse

4.4.5. Retain

4.5. OER textbook repositories

4.5.1. openstax

4.5.2. BCcampus

4.5.3. Open Education Group

4.5.4. Global Text Project

4.5.5. Green Tea Press

4.5.6. InTechOpen

4.5.7. LibreTexts

4.5.8. MIT Open Courseware

4.5.9. Noba

4.5.10. Online Mathematics Textbooks

4.5.11. OpenBook Publishers

4.5.12. Open Textbook Initiative

4.5.13. ScholarWorks@GVSU

4.5.14. Orange Grove: Textbooks and Courseware

4.5.15. MERLOT: Textbooks

4.5.16. OER Commons

4.5.17. Open SUNY

4.5.18. FreeTechBooks

4.6. Concerns

4.6.1. Quality

4.6.2. Time to change curriculum

4.6.3. Potentially outdated

4.6.4. Lack of supplemental materials

4.6.5. Decrease faculty job security (content being used outside of university causing lower enrollments)

4.6.6. Funding for development