Programming Languages and Program Development

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Programming Languages and Program Development by Mind Map: Programming Languages and Program Development

1. Computer Programs and Programming Languages

1.1. A computer program is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks

1.1.1. Created by a programmer using a programming language

2. Low‐Level Languages

2.1. Machine language is the first generation of programming languages

2.2. Only language the computer directly recognize

2.3. Assembly language is the second generation of programming languages

2.4. Programmer writes instructions using   symbolic instruction codes

2.5. A source program contains the code to be converted to machine language

3. Procedural Languages

3.1. In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it

3.1.1. Third‐generation language (3GL)

3.2. COBOL (COmmon Business‐Oriented Language) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English‐like statements

3.3. An object‐oriented programming (OOP) language allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects

3.4. Other advantages include

3.4.1. Objects can be reused

3.4.2. Programmers create applications faster

3.4.3. Work well in a RAD environment

3.4.4. Most program development tools are IDEs

4. Object‐Oriented Programming Languages and Program Development Tools

4.1. Java is an object‐oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems

4.2. The Just‐in‐time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecode into machine‐dependent code

4.3. The Microsoft .NET Framework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices

4.4. Features include

4.4.1. CLR (Common Language Runtime)

4.4.2. Classes

4.5. C++ is an extension of the C programming languag

4.5.1. Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object‐oriented concepts

4.6. C# is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft

4.7. PowerBuilder is a powerful program development RAD tool

4.8. Best suited for Web‐ based, .NET, and large‐ scale enterprise object‐ oriented applications

5. Other Programming Languages and Development Tools

5.1. A 4GL (fourth‐generation language) is a nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database

5.1.1. One popular 4GL is SQL

5.2. Classic programming languages include

5.2.1. Ada

5.2.2. ALGOL

5.2.3. APL

5.2.4. BASIC

5.2.5. Forth

5.2.6. FORTRAN

5.2.7. HyperTalk

5.2.8. LISP

5.2.9. Logo

5.2.10. Modula‐2

5.2.11. Pascal

5.2.12. PILOT

5.2.13. PL/1

5.2.14. Prolog

5.2.15. RPG

5.2.16. Smalltalk

5.3. An application generator is a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality

5.4. A macro is a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task

5.5. You usually create the macro in one of two ways

5.5.1. Record the macro with a macro recorder

5.5.2. Write the macro

6. Web Page Development

6.1. HTML is a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web

6.2. XHTML is a markup language that allows Web sites to be displayed more easily on mobile device

6.3. XML allows Web developers to create customized tags and use predefined tags to display content appropriately on various devices

6.4. Two applications of XML are RSS 2.0 and ATOM

6.5. Web browsers can execute short programs to add interactive elements to Web pages

6.6. To send and receive information between your computer and a Web server, these programs use the CGI (common gateway interface)

6.7. Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages

6.7.1. JavaScript

6.7.2. Perl

6.7.3. PHP

6.7.4. Rexx

6.7.5. Tcl

6.7.6. VBScript

6.8. Web 2.0 allows Web sites to provide a means for users to

6.8.1. Share personal information

6.8.2. Allow users to modify Web site content

6.8.3. Have application software built into the site

6.9. Most Web 2.0 sites use APIs

6.9.1. An API enables programmers to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system

6.10. Web page authoring software can create sophisticated Web pages that include images, video, audio, animation, and other effects

6.10.1. Dreamweaver

6.10.2. Expression Web

6.10.3. Flash

6.10.4. SharePoint Designer

7. Multimedia Program Development

7.1. Multimedia authoring software allows programmers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video in an interactive presentation

7.1.1. ToolBook

7.1.2. Director

8. Program Development

8.1. Program development consists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs

8.2. Step 1 – Analyze Requirements

8.2.1. To initiate program development, programmer

8.2.1.1. Reviews the requirements

8.2.1.2. Meets with the systems analyst and users

8.2.1.3. Identifies input, processing, and output

8.2.2. IPO chart

8.3. Step 2 – Design Solution

8.3.1. Design a solution algorithm

8.3.2. • In structured design, the programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design

8.3.3. Programmers use a hierarchy chart to show program modules graphicall

8.3.4. With object‐oriented (OO) design, the programmer packages the data and the program into a single object

8.3.5. The sequence control structure shows one or more actions following each other in order

8.3.6. The selection control structure tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition

8.3.7. The repetition control structure enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met

8.3.8. A program flowchart graphically shows the logic in a solution algorith

8.3.9. Flowcharting software makes it easy to modify and update flowcharts

8.3.10. Pseudocode uses a condensed form of English to convey program logic

8.3.11. UML (Unified Modeling Language) has been adopted as a standard notation for object modeling and development

8.4. Step 3 – Validate Design

8.4.1. Check for logic errors using test data

8.5. Step 4 – Implement Design

8.5.1. Implementation of the design includes using a program development tool that assists the programmer by

8.5.1.1. Generating or providing some or all code

8.5.1.2. Writing the code that translates the design into a computer program

8.5.1.3. Creating the user interface

8.5.2. Extreme programming is a strategy where programmers immediately begin coding and testing solutions as soon as requirements are defined

8.6. Step 5 – Test Solution

8.6.1. The goal of program testing is to ensure the program runs correctly and is error free

8.6.1.1. Errors include syntax errors and logic errors

8.6.1.2. Debugging the program involves removing the bugs

8.6.1.3. A beta is a program that has most or all of its features and functionality implemented

8.7. Step 6 – Document Solution

8.7.1. In documenting the solution, the programmer performs two activities

8.7.1.1. Review the program code

8.7.1.2. Review all the documentation