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Programming Languages and Program Development by Mind Map: Programming Languages and
Program Development
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Programming Languages and Program Development

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Computer Programs and Programming Languages

A computer program is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks

Created by a programmer using a programming language

Low‐Level Languages

Machine language is the first generation of programming languages

Only language the computer directly recognize

Assembly language is the second generation of programming languages

Programmer writes instructions using   symbolic instruction codes

A source program contains the code to be converted to machine language

Procedural Languages

In a procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it

Third‐generation language (3GL)

COBOL (COmmon Business‐Oriented Language) is designed for business applications, but easy to read because of the English‐like statements

An object‐oriented programming (OOP) language allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects

Other advantages include

Objects can be reused

Programmers create applications faster

Work well in a RAD environment

Most program development tools are IDEs

Object‐Oriented Programming Languages and Program Development Tools

Java is an object‐oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems

The Just‐in‐time (JIT) compiler to convert the bytecode into machine‐dependent code

The Microsoft .NET Framework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices

Features include

CLR (Common Language Runtime)

Classes

C++ is an extension of the C programming languag

Additional features for working with objects, classes, events, and other object‐oriented concepts

C# is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft

PowerBuilder is a powerful program development RAD tool

Best suited for Web‐ based, .NET, and large‐ scale enterprise object‐ oriented applications

Other Programming Languages and Development Tools

A 4GL (fourth‐generation language) is a nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database

One popular 4GL is SQL

Classic programming languages include

Ada

ALGOL

APL

BASIC

Forth

FORTRAN

HyperTalk

LISP

Logo

Modula‐2

Pascal

PILOT

PL/1

Prolog

RPG

Smalltalk

An application generator is a program that creates source code or machine code from a specification of the required functionality

A macro is a series of statements that instructs an application how to complete a task

You usually create the macro in one of two ways

Record the macro with a macro recorder

Write the macro

Web Page Development

HTML is a special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the Web

XHTML is a markup language that allows Web sites to be displayed more easily on mobile device

XML allows Web developers to create customized tags and use predefined tags to display content appropriately on various devices

Two applications of XML are RSS 2.0 and ATOM

Web browsers can execute short programs to add interactive elements to Web pages

To send and receive information between your computer and a Web server, these programs use the CGI (common gateway interface)

Programmers write scripts, applets, servlets, or ActiveX controls using a variety of languages

JavaScript

Perl

PHP

Rexx

Tcl

VBScript

Web 2.0 allows Web sites to provide a means for users to

Share personal information

Allow users to modify Web site content

Have application software built into the site

Most Web 2.0 sites use APIs

An API enables programmers to interact with an environment such as a Web site or operating system

Web page authoring software can create sophisticated Web pages that include images, video, audio, animation, and other effects

Dreamweaver

Expression Web

Flash

SharePoint Designer

Multimedia Program Development

Multimedia authoring software allows programmers to combine text, graphics, animation, audio, and video in an interactive presentation

ToolBook

Director

Program Development

Program development consists of a series of steps programmers use to build computer programs

Step 1 – Analyze Requirements

To initiate program development, programmer, Reviews the requirements, Meets with the systems analyst and users, Identifies input, processing, and output

IPO chart

Step 2 – Design Solution

Design a solution algorithm

• In structured design, the programmer typically begins with a general design and moves toward a more detailed design

Programmers use a hierarchy chart to show program modules graphicall

With object‐oriented (OO) design, the programmer packages the data and the program into a single object

The sequence control structure shows one or more actions following each other in order

The selection control structure tells the program which action to take, based on a certain condition

The repetition control structure enables a program to perform one or more actions repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met

A program flowchart graphically shows the logic in a solution algorith

Flowcharting software makes it easy to modify and update flowcharts

Pseudocode uses a condensed form of English to convey program logic

UML (Unified Modeling Language) has been adopted as a standard notation for object modeling and development

Step 3 – Validate Design

Check for logic errors using test data

Step 4 – Implement Design

Implementation of the design includes using a program development tool that assists the programmer by, Generating or providing some or all code, Writing the code that translates the design into a computer program, Creating the user interface

Extreme programming is a strategy where programmers immediately begin coding and testing solutions as soon as requirements are defined

Step 5 – Test Solution

The goal of program testing is to ensure the program runs correctly and is error free, Errors include syntax errors and logic errors, Debugging the program involves removing the bugs, A beta is a program that has most or all of its features and functionality implemented

Step 6 – Document Solution

In documenting the solution, the programmer performs two activities, Review the program code, Review all the documentation