# Mathematics and Science in Ancient Greece

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Mathematics and Science in Ancient Greece

## 1. Mathematics

### 1.1. Philosophers

1.1.1. Euclid

1.1.1.1. He lived in Athens

1.1.1.2. He wrote several textbooks that laid the foundation for geometry

1.1.1.2.1. The word "geometry" in Greek, means the "earth" and "measure".

1.1.1.2.2. The Greeks learned the foundations for geometry from the Egyptians

1.1.1.3. Taught students about mathematics, some were even kings

1.1.1.4. He proved that pythagoras' theory was always true in all right angles.

1.1.1.5. He set the standards of a "proof".

1.1.2. Eratosthenes

1.1.2.1. Lived in Alexandria

1.1.2.2. He first calculated the circumference of the earth

1.1.2.2.1. He used light rays in shadows in the nile river, and found a central angle in the earth

1.1.2.3. He was first to calculate the solstice which the longest day of the year.

1.1.2.4. He was a literary critic, astronomer, historian and geographer.

1.1.3. Pythagoras

1.1.3.1. Lived in, what is now, southern Italy.

1.1.3.2. He founded a boys and girls school that was based around that the mind could be cleansed through scientific thought

1.1.3.3. He had a theory that "all things are numbers"

1.1.3.4. Developed the "Pythagorean theorem"

1.1.3.5. He thought that numbers were the origin of all things on earth

1.1.3.6. He is known as "the father of numbers".

1.1.3.7. He found that music was based on intervals that were within the numbers 1-4.

1.1.3.8. His ability to think abstractly enabled him to go to advanced levels.

1.1.4. Archimedes

1.1.4.1. He is the founder of statistics and hydrostatics, and made the principals for the lever

1.1.4.1.1. Made a principal that says: that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object.

1.1.4.2. He made a very close prediction to what the number Pi really was

1.1.4.3. He also made many advances in physics

1.1.4.4. Geometry was a great interest of his, and he studied every kind of shape there was

1.1.4.5. Like most astronomers, he thought that stars and planets were attached to clear, and transparent spheres.

### 1.2. Numbers

1.2.1. The first numbering system in ancient Greece Acrophonic

1.2.2. Numbers were used in ancient Greece to determine the amount of money one had.

1.2.2.1. The unit used in Ancient Greece for counting money was called drachma

## 3. Science

### 3.1. Astronomy

3.1.1. Aristarchus

3.1.1.1. He first determined the length of one year by studying the patterns of stars and the moon

3.1.1.2. He thought at "the half moon" that the tilt or angle between the moon and the sun was 87 degrees

3.1.1.3. Thought that the sun were the center of the universe

3.1.1.4. He thought that the univrese was a lot greater than it actually is.

3.1.2. Plato

3.1.2.1. He created a model for the solar system, that consisted of 2 spheres and 8 circles around it carrying the stars and the 7 planets, the earth was in the center.

3.1.2.2. He was known as a philosopher and a mathematician

3.1.2.3. He studied the rotations of the eight revolutions ( 7 planets plus earth).

3.1.2.4. studied under socrates

3.1.2.5. He did not trust his senses, he was looking for clarity

3.1.3. Eudoxus

3.1.3.1. He was the first man to try to make a mathematical formula for the rotations of each planet.

3.1.3.2. He thought that all planets were on a tilt.

3.1.3.3. He wrote a book called "On speeds" but all of his own works were lost, we can only know of his work from secondary sources

3.1.3.4. mainly focused on spherical astronomy and planetary rotations

3.1.4. Hipparchus

3.1.4.1. studied the moon and its eclipses

3.1.4.1.1. thought that lunar eclipses happened every 5 months, and solar eclipses every 7 months.

3.1.4.2. He was the first known astronomer to try to figure of the size of the moon's orbit

3.1.4.3. He noticed that the seasons were uneven, and first observed the equinox and the solstice

3.1.4.3.1. because of these observations, he thought the earth was no longer in the center, but a far distance from the center

3.1.4.4. He made the first, and most significant star catalog

3.1.5. Pythagoras

3.1.5.1. Was the first to identify that the morning and evening stars were the same body.

3.1.5.2. Thought that the earth was round, unlike aristotle

3.1.5.3. He tried to explain, how, and what the universe was

3.1.5.4. He called heaven the universe, and thought that the earth was round

3.1.6. Thales

3.1.6.1. calculated the diameter of the sun

3.1.6.2. first identified "Ursa Minor" and knew its use for navigation purposes

3.1.6.3. He is said to be one of the seven men of greece

3.1.6.4. He is said to take a "scientific approach" to the natural world.

3.1.6.5. Some say that he should be credited for the beginnings of physics, science, and philosophy.

3.1.6.6. He said that "all things are water"

3.1.6.7. He began to split opinion from facts

### 3.2. Medicine

3.2.1. Hippocrates

3.2.1.1. he is thought as "The Father of Medicine"

3.2.1.2. He believed in joining philosophy and medicine together, not religion and medicine.

3.2.1.3. He held 2 different schools of medicine, one calles " Koan" and the other called "knidian".

3.2.1.4. He thought if the "four humours" were in a bad mixture that someone would get sick

3.2.1.5. A "crisis" was when the sickness won, and took over the body, either leaving the patient to death or the body will re-heal itself.

3.2.1.6. He believed in "the healing power of nature", which was therefore very passive.

3.2.1.7. He was the first to describe many sicknesses, as well as starting to put sicknesses in categories

### 3.3. Earth science

3.3.1. The study of the earth's beginning and how it grows and exists.

3.3.1.1. Biology, which was also classified in Greek times of studying the earth's origin was studied by many philosophers such as Hippocrates, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen

3.3.2. Philosophers, for the first time, tried to explain natural disasters such as volcanoes and earthquakes

3.3.3. Aristotle collected and analyzed most of the plants that we see all around us today

3.3.3.1. Theophrastus later named all of these plants

### 3.4. Biology

3.4.1. Philosophers

3.4.1.1. Aristotle

3.4.1.1.1. Thought that the term "nature" referred to everything in the environment

3.4.1.1.2. His teacher was Plato, and he thought that our senses can determine what is real.

3.4.1.1.3. He is often referred to as "the father of science". an the "great synthesizer"

3.4.1.1.4. He thought the planets and the stars were perfectly circular, but the earth was not

3.4.1.1.5. born in Stagira, a northern city.

3.4.1.1.6. His father was a court physician

3.4.1.2. Theophrastus

3.4.1.2.1. He wrote many textbooks on how plants and animals exist in the world

3.4.1.2.2. His writings are considered the foundation for further development of botany, zoology, and minerology

3.4.1.2.3. Was taught by Aristotle

3.4.1.2.4. Lived on the Island of Lesbos

3.4.1.2.5. He thought that "space" was the positions of bodies

3.4.1.3. Plato

3.4.1.3.1. he had a school that he ran and said "Let no man ignorant of geometry enter."

3.4.1.3.2. He created the bases for what we know now as the "Scientific Method"

3.4.1.3.3. had a school in which he focused on studying the stars and mathematics

3.4.1.3.4. He was focused on perfection and looked up to Pythagoras as inspiration

3.4.1.3.5. Later, after his teachings and travels involving politics, he focused on his writings about philosophy.