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Force and Pressure by Mind Map: Force and Pressure

1. What is a Force?

1.1. A push of pull

2. What are the effects of forces?

2.1. Change the speed of a moving object, either by increasing its speed or slowing it down

2.2. Change the shape of an object or size of an object

2.3. Change the direction of a moving object

2.4. Start an object moving or stop a moving object

2.5. you cannot see a force but you can see the effects of forces.

3. How can we measure a force?

3.1. Using a force-meter

3.1.1. Spring-balances Extension spring balance Spring stretches when a force pulls on it Compression spring balance Spring is compressed when a force acts on it

3.2. SI Unit: Newton(N)

4. What are the important forces around us?

4.1. Frictional Force

4.1.1. Occurs whenever there are two moving surfaces in contact

4.1.2. Slows down and stops a moving object

4.1.3. Produces heat

4.1.4. Friction can be useful Friction holds a nail in the wall Friction between the wheel and the brakes slow down the bicycle Friction between our feet and the ground gives us the grip needed to walk and run

4.1.5. Friction can be a problem Makes movement more difficult Wears away materials

4.1.6. Ways to reduce Friction Use smooth surfaces Ball bearings Lubrication Streamlining

4.2. Magnetic Force

4.2.1. Magnets can attract objects made of iron and steel

4.2.2. Magnets exert a force called magnetic force

4.2.3. Examples of Magnetic Force Magnetic catch for the door of a cabinet keeps the door shut The needle of a compass is a small magnet. A compass is used to give directions A magnet attracts steel pin. Picking up the pins ourselves may injure our fingers A crane uses a powerful magnet to lift iron and steel objects

4.2.4. Forces between magnets Magnets can exert a force on other magnets Bar magnets each have a North and South pole Like poles repel (Push) Unlike poles attract (Pull)

4.3. Gravitational Force

4.3.1. A force that pulls objects towards the Earth

4.3.2. Exists between any two objects

4.4. Weight

4.4.1. Weight of an object depends on the force of gravity pulling on that object

4.4.2. The greater the force of gravity pulling on an object, the heavier the object

5. What is Pressure?

5.1. The amount of area applied onto an object

5.2. Pressure depends on 2 things: 1) Force 2) Area

5.3. The pressure increases when the force increases, while the area decreases

5.4. Increasing Pressure by reducing Area

5.4.1. For the same force, when a smaller surface is in contact with an object, the pressure exerted on the object is higher

5.5. Reducing Pressure by increasing Area

5.5.1. Low pressures are needed when people or machines move on soft ground or snow

5.6. When a larger surface is in contact with the ground, the pressure exerted on the ground is lower, so people and machines can move without sinking

6. Calculating Pressure

6.1. Pressure is the force acting per unit area

6.2. Pressure = Force divided by Area

6.3. Unit of Force is newton (N)

6.4. (Pa) is the SI unit for Pressure