@realhumanist | @the.holistic.psychologist

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@realhumanist | @the.holistic.psychologist by Mind Map: @realhumanist | @the.holistic.psychologist

1. 10) @realhumanist's involvement in @the.holistic.psychologist's new business.

1.1. @the.holistic.psychologist credits @realhumanist as being the mastermind of the new business.

1.1.1. Writes a Yelp review for the web design company that she "used to build a psychology website."

2. 17) Psychology License

2.1. Licensed in state of Pennsylvania (NPI Number: 1326411430) but now lives in California.

3. 1) The "Nonprofit"

3.1. @realhumanist launches Dignity Project, which is represented as a nonprofit raising funds for Philadelphia's homeless community, March 2016. [Philadelphia Citizen]

3.1.1. YouTube Video, April 2016

3.1.2. Takes Dignity Tour across country, June 2016 [YouTube]

3.1.2.1. Launches Philly Street Cuts, June 2016 [Flickr]

3.1.2.1.1. News Clip: PHL17 Morning News, July 2016

3.1.2.1.2. Feature: Philadelphia City Life, July 2016

3.1.3. Describes an "All Lives Matter" style confrontation with another advocate for the homeless community: "A reminder that were [sic] human first then a color or a badge second," July 2016.

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4. 2) The Money

4.1. GoFundMe campaign in support of The Dignity Tour raises $19,330, January–May 2016 [GoFundMe]

4.2. A second GoFundMe campaign raises another $9,600, October 2016 [GoFundMe]

4.3. TD Bank gives @realhumanist a monetary award of an undetermined value, September 2016 [TD Bank]

5. 3) The Accolades

5.1. "Rad Girls" award nomination, April 2017. [Philadelphia City Life]

5.1.1. Allure Magazine feature, December 2016. [Allure]

5.1.1.1. Speaking engagement at Camaraderie NYC, October 2016. [Facebook]

5.2. Recognition from the Philadelphia City Council, @the.holistic.psychologist present, September 2016. [Flickr]

6. 4) The Breakdown

6.1. A woman named Jennifer works with @realhumanist for several months until an argument ensues and @realhumanist breaks a window at Jennifer's house. @realhumanist proceeds to harass Jennifer from the street when asked to leave, and a restraining order is obtained. [Video /Imgur]

7. 5) The Disappearance

7.1. @realhumanist and @the.holistic.psychologist disappear from Philadelphia in mid-2017. @realhumanist deletes her social media accounts, and the donated funds are unaccounted for. @the.holistic.psychologist's post from November 2018 confirms that "The past few years we spent outside the country having adventures..." [Instagram]

7.1.1. "Whatever happened to…" Reddit users in Philadelphia want to know what happened. (@realhumanist threatens to sue in comments), February 2018. [Reddit]

7.1.1.1. Screenshots [Imgur]

7.2. A portion of their travels are documented via @realhumanist's Yelp account, including a trip to London in November 2016 (two months after the 2nd GoFundMe campaign). The reviews also highlight numerous brewery & winery visits. [Yelp]

7.2.1. Trip to London in November 2016 (two months after the 2nd GoFundMe campaign)

7.2.1.1. @the.holistic.psychologist's Yelp.

7.2.2. Screenshots

7.3. Thread about the nonprofit, @realhumanist responds via @the.holistic.psychologist's old Instagram account, @mindful.healing, Fall 2018. [Instagram]

7.3.1. Screenshots [Imgur]

7.3.1.1. @the.holistic.psychologist's old Instagram account, @mindful.healing

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8. 6) The Judgement

8.1. December 2018, @realhumanist admits to operating the Dignity Project without receiving proper nonprofit status and falsely representing it as a nonprofit, neglecting to keep accurate financial records or receipts, depositing the funds into her personal bank account, and failing to use the funds as promised. @realhumanist is fined $3,000 and ordered to refrain from being part of any charitable organizations in Pennsylvania for ten years. The prosecuting attorney, along with other local, state, or federal entities could pursue further charges against @realhumanist As can any donors or beneficiaries. [PDF]

9. 7) The Aftermath

9.1. GoFundMe has closed @realhumanist's account but has not pursued any action. Donors and beneficiaries of the campaigns can file claims with GoFundMe. [GoFundMe]

9.1.1. TD Bank is made aware of the judgement in 2018 but takes two years to respond. [Facebook]

9.2. Non Profit for Homeless Outreach ordered to Cease and Desist, February 2019 (@realhumanist responds in the comments) [Reddit]

9.2.1. Hereforfun informs @the.holistic.psychologist's followers about the judgement, September 2019 [Reddit]

9.2.2. Screenshots [Imgur]

9.3. Screenshots [Imgur]

10. 8) The Family Business (Some Background)

10.1. Prior to the nonprofit, @realhumanist runs a chain of fashion boutiques with her mom, which feature "b*ho-style" clothing and accessories along with Fair Trade products and ethical goods. [Link: Old Instagram page for the shop run by @realhumanist]

10.1.1. A Twitter interaction describes @realhumanist as "one of the biggest bitches I have EVER met," September 2013.

10.2. @realhumanist's Instagram account for the shop suddenly starts showing @realhumanist's travel photos instead of info for the business, and questions from customers about the store go unanswered, March 2015. [Instagram]

10.2.1. Still owes @yogadudesf money as of August 2019. [Instagram]

10.3. After @realhumanist's departure, a Black customer publishes an article detailing the Philadelphia location's over-the-top response to her report of microagressive treatment at the store, July 2016. [Racism is a Sickness]

10.3.1. Post about interaction [Facebook]

10.3.2. Threat of lawsuit from the shop to one of article author's Facebook friends. [Imgur]

10.4. The shop's Yelp page. [Yelp]

11. 9) @the.holistic.psychologist's Involvement in Nonprofit

11.1. The pair are pictured together along with the #dignityproject and #phillystreetcuts hashtags, April 2017.

11.1.1. "After a busy day spent running around with @realhumanist for the #dignityproject [...]," December 2016. [@the.holistic. psychologist's old Instagram account]

12. 11) Problematic

12.1. Talks about her therapy clients in Philadelphia prior to her rise to Instagram fame: @realhumanist often points out people on the street to Jennifer and says, "That's one of [the.holistic.psychologist's] clients. She's crazy."

12.2. Discourages followers from seeking mental health diagnoses or professional treatment but retains the "psychologist" and "Doctor" titles and credentials. January 2019 Image caption: Healing does not require a therapist "The other day I was on a podcast and the host said "isn't it controversial that you don't think therapy is for everyone as a therapist?" I never thought of it that way. It's how I make my living. It's not in my best interest, but it's my truth. There is not model that fits everyone. Therapy was not part of my own healing journey. [...]"

12.2.1. Redditers discuss @the.holistic.psychologist's reputation for claiming mental illness is "essentially something you can choose out of." / "The.holistic.psychologist and pseudo science" [Reddit]

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12.2.1.2. Screenshots [Imgur]

12.2.2. "@the.holistic.psychologist saying she was a crappy therapist & that’s why she had to become an influencer" [Reddit]

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12.3. A woman named C.D. describes her experience with THP's Self-Healers Circle as "toxic." From the beginning, C.D. says she's made to feel overwhelmed with anxiety because the membership sign-up event is heavily marketed as likely to sell-out very quickly, and no waiting list is provided. Once C.D. is able to sign up, she says there are technical difficulties with the launch, which the company providing the service attributes to lack of staffing on THP's end. C.D. says there is also a general sense of confusion from members, who are given the impression that they would be provided with a lot more guidance than they are given. Their questions are left unanswered by THP, but other members quickly join in with support, which C.D. sees as potentially very problematic. When C.D. offers feedback about all of this on @the.holistic.psychologist's Instagram page, she's given a response by THP but later discovers she's been blocked from @the.holistic.psychologist's page -- while she still a member of the Self-Healers Circle.

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12.4. Subtly places the blame on victims if they're unable to heal themselves and ignores the lived experience of people suffering from systemic oppression. Accused of routinely deleting dissenting comments and blocking Black followers and others who voice criticism of her platform. A recent post addressing Black Lives Matter is met with overwhelming criticism, June 2020. [Instagram]

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12.5. [Now deleted as of September 2020] Website disclaimer gives @the.holistic.psychologist license to "use, copy, modify, transmit, sell, exploit, create derivative works from, distribute, and/or publicly perform" followers' comments and also share their identities. [Archive.org]

12.5.1. First book coming soon. From an April 2020 Instagram post: "I feel like I’ve been keeping a secret from a best friend, so here goes: WE ARE WRITING A BOOK! Many months ago, I asked in a post for you to share how this work has affected you. Over 3,000 of you showed up in a BIG way for me. Those comments (that also had me in ugly tears) were the cover of the book proposal. Publishers internationally were watching. THANK YOU. We found a home for this book with people who love it, use it, + believe in it as much as I do at @harper_wave The book rights were also sold in China, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Korea, Australia, Croatia, + Brazil which means the book will be translated in all of these languages to spread selfhealing around the world. I’m still blown away. We created a MOVEMENT. [...]"

12.5.1.1. [Now deleted as of September 2020] Kelly Brogan, whose website is titled, "Holistic Psychiatry," is mentioned in @the.holistic. psychologist's disclaimer [Archive.org]

12.5.1.1.1. Brogan's disclaimer

13. 12) Colleague Criticism

13.1. Instagram account spreading information about @the.holistic.psychologist & @realhumanist launches May 2020, shuts down September 2020.

13.2. Clarification of the term "holistic," by @seerutkchawla, Seerut K. Chawla MBACP, April 27, 2020, which draws harassment from @the.holistic.psychologist's followers. [Instagram] "My tiger tires. ‘Holistic’ is not a subjective term, it refers to a very specific way of working that looks at illness as part of a whole system. It is not a catch all term for all fringe ideas. Don’t get me wrong crystals are pretty, I like tarot cards, I’m sure if I ever met a fairy I’d think it was very nice – and none of these are psychotherapy or psychology.⁣ ⁣ Most therapists work holistically, especially if they’re trauma-informed. We look at the whole picture, we don’t treat the brain in isolation, we help you do the work outside therapy, and work to empower you. AND we are ethical practitioners who are aware of the remits of our competency. Everything we do has to be through the lens of what is in your best interests, and safest for you.⁣ ⁣ A lot of therapists stick to pure therapy, even if they’re trauma-informed, which is equally valid. You wouldn’t expect your personal trainer to treat your hypothyroidism, you’d see a physician. You wouldn’t ask your chiropractor to help you process complex childhood trauma, you’d go to a therapist.⁣ ⁣ This is why we have various licensed professionals with expertise that they trained to specialise in, and that’s a really good thing. It makes sure we all get high quality specialised care and stay safe. #inthetrencheswithyou"

13.2.1. "Open Letter To The Holistic Psychologist," May 2020, Follow-up from Chawla [Medium] 'None of my work is meant to attack you as a person, but to draw you and your followers into critical thinking and dialogue around the ideas you share. As many of us have seen you avoid conversations, delete difficult comments, respond to legitimate concerns with platitudes like “I hear you. Thanks for sharing,” and generally refuse to engage directly when people challenge your ideas- all under the guise that people are simply “projecting onto you,” “not everything needs a response,” “not needing to manage others perceptions” etc… Even now, I can see you avoiding the engagement and instead focusing on people’s reactions. Instead of addressing the actual topic and debating the idea of emotional addiction itself, you’re: *offering platitudes (“I respect your work and viewpoint…”) *defending your intention rather than your impact (“my view of addiction does not connect with any moral value”) *focusing on MY reaction (“if emotional addiction doesn’t align for you…”) *putting the responsibility back on the consumer instead of holding the power you have responsibly (“inspiring people to do their own reflection and questioning.”) This all feels very manipulative. It makes you look like you have all the best intentions by using such sweet words, and makes me look like a bully, when all I’m trying to do is discuss an idea. This is a pattern we’ve seen you engage in over and over again. You’ve set this up so that any attempt on my part to “argue” my point will emotionally feel like an attack to other people reading this. This is a brilliant way to avoid direct debate of the ideas and content you share."

13.2.1.1. Responses from colleagues.

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13.2.1.3. Threats in comments of @seerutkchawla's post [Instagram]

13.2.1.3.1. Private message

13.3. @christabelmintahgalloway, May 2020. [Instagram story/video] "I just came to the realization that my favorite Instagram psychology account is actively antiblack [...]"

13.3.1. @the.wellness.therapist calls out @the.holistic.psychologist, May 2020. [Instagram] "What does decolonizing mental health mean ? My tongue is now untied because white people, in particular white women who make it appear that they are open minded, progressive, liberal, etc in mental health & holistic/wellness spaces do SO MUCH damage by upholding white supremacy by choosing to be apolitical. The aesthetic of their brand on IG & making $$ is more important to them than preventing BIPOC from experiencing more trauma. That’s what they are telling us with their actions. Let that sink in. They can’t even get themselves to say “white people” or “Black” — for example, @The.Holistic.psychologist had to be pushed into finally making a post about George Floyd today. In the 2 years that her account has existed, she has never ONCE posted on her grid about race or class based trauma. How are you going to help heal people from trauma when you can’t even understand or talk about their trauma? From a mental perspective all trauma cannot be treated the same. Especially if it’s ongoing. If your mental health practitioner is not aware of that they are in effect gaslighting you. Cultural competency is so vital. [...]"

13.3.1.1. @kayleerosetherapy, June 4 2020 [Instagram story/video] Talks about being met with a "brick wall" when she and colleagues have given @the.holistic.psychologist feedback about how her content blames victims and is unsafe for trauma survivors and oppressed populations.

13.3.2. Retraction from the account The Body is Not and Apology after sharing a post by @the.holistic.psychologist.

13.3.2.1. We apologize for posting content from [redacted] (@ the.holistic.psychologist) and are grateful for the folks who have stepped up to let us know about [redacted]'s anti-Blackness and gaslighting of Black women and other folks of color. If you're interested in learning more directly from folks she has harmed, we recommend checking out the IG Stories of @the.wellness.therapist and @christabelmintahgalloway, as well as @kayleerosetherapy and @seerutkchawla. We love and support you. 🖤 🖤 🖤 . . [image description: on a black sand background is the following text in white font: "Beloved community, Yesterday we reposted an image from [redacted], @ the.holistic.psychologist, which was a quote that read, "Say no to what feels heavy + yes to what feels expansive". We have since been called in by some folks via comments and messages to educate us about the anti-Black harm that Dr. Nicole has perpetrated, specifically involving gaslighting and banning Black women and some other folks of color. There has been a recent Vice article with more detail published in the last week that we suggest you turn to if you haven't already. We apologize unreservedly for the pain that seeing her words elevated caused. We unconditionally trust, believe, and honor Black women. We've decided to take down our repost so that we are not further amplifying [redacted]'s platform. We are also happy to offer our support in other ways the community deems desirable. Thank you for reaching out to us and taking the time to engage. <3"]

13.4. "Dr. Nicole LePera’s History of Gaslighting People of Color" "I experienced gaslighting from Dr. Nicole LePera about a year ago. It was in the days after her one-year anniversary. After having endured narcissistic abuse that was characterized by gaslighting, I have low tolerance for it. It is too long to describe, but what I will say is that it was intentional and directed at me. I felt I was crazy because why would someone with then 500k people in her community target me?? At the time I had 200 members in my Instagram community. So I had two of my friends double check to make sure I wasn’t seeing things, and they confirmed for me that I was not. Once I came to terms with her behavior as being gaslighting behavior, I blocked her page because I will not support someone who inflicts psychological violence on me, which is is what gaslighting is. Connecting it to race I did not connect my own experience to race until I recently heard from others that they had experienced similar types of behavior that was gaslighting in nature. It just so happened that all 4 experiences (mine included) of gaslighting that I either directly heard about or whose messages I saw were directed at women of color. I’m not saying that Dr. Nicole is overtly racist. It could be a case of implicit bias, I am not sure. This is analogous to the concept from Human Resources of disparate impact versus disparate treatment. When it comes to disparate impact, the intent does not matter, only the impact matters. And here, the impact is self-evident. All of us who were the recipients of this treatment are people of color (to include myself - a Latina, two Black people, and one South East Asian person)."

13.4.1. "I’m Asking A Higher Power for Help with [@the.holistic.psychologist] case: Dr. Ramani on Narcissistic Abuse and ICSA for Subtleties in Organizational Control" "Freeloading off Months Of Advocacy and Emotional Labor by Women Clients, Practitioners of Color and Concerned Survivors of Narcisisstic Abuse such as myself? Not any longer, and especially not during such a time as this. The resources of women of color are precious and your lack of accountability over the past two years requires special help." "The one who has spoken out on her content and practices the most, London based trauma-informed therapist Seerut K Chawla, a woman of color with family roots in India, recieving the brunt of the backlash which has only intensified with global protests. There are several mental health coaches, therapists and clients, some of whose consciences were pricked by the global response to police brutality against people of color, speaking out on instagram feeds and publishing screenshots of private exchanges regarding habitual gaslighting behaviors by [@the.holistic.psychologist] towards clients of color."

14. 13) Media Criticism

14.1. Therapists and Fans are Turning Against Instagram's 'Holistic Psychologist,' Katie Way, August, 2020 [Vice] "In 2018, when Kaylee Friedman saw a post from a therapist stating that "we all have the privilege of choosing our mindset,” [emphasis original] she immediately thought of all the people who don't have any such privilege and how damaging that messaging could be for them. "Said the rich white lady," Friedman, who now works as a therapist in Princeton, New Jersey, and runs an Instagram account promoting mental health awareness, wrote in a DM to the poster, Nicole LePera. “As healers, we need to be careful about this whole subconscious ‘manifesting’… it’s a dangerous idea that perpetuates the idea that it’s all on the individual to make it,” Friedman wrote. “We have gross systemic issues that shouldn’t be ignored when talking about wealth and abundance." In the conversation that ensued, LePera defended her stance. “I listen to many mentors in this arena who are of different races and grew up in poverty talking about how this very idea changed their lives,” she wrote. “My deepest belief is that we are 100% responsible for our thoughts, behaviors, and reactions,” she wrote in a later message. “This is empowerment. Regardless of where you came from.” Normally, this kind of exchange would be of little concern—there are tons of people on social media with potentially harmful opinions. Except that LePera, better known as @The.Holistic.Psychologist, is a psychologist with a PhD, a booming online therapy business, and 2.6 million Instagram followers as of this writing; by the time this story is published, she’ll likely have more. Her graphics explaining trauma, the “reparenting” process of setting boundaries and building up self-love, and “ego work” net tens of thousands of likes per post."

14.1.1. "Everyone's a #SelfHealer: How 'Holistic Psychology' Took Instagram by Storm," Katie Way, April 2020 [Vice] @the.holistic.psychologist regularly posts images and captions explicitly rejecting the tools of traditional psychotherapy, such as one post in which she calls the current era “the dark ages of psychology,” one where she rejects the idea that talk therapy can help people deal with trauma, and another in which she questions the value of the DSM and mental health diagnoses in general.

14.1.1.1. “Holistic” Ableism, Fauxhemians, Oh My: The Dangers of Health Misinformation on Social Media," Walela Nehanda, January 2020 [Medium] "At first glance, The.Holistic.Psychologist’s posts appear insightful and helpful, especially for those who don’t have access to therapy ie many poor people, especially poor colonized people. I was recommended to her page from a friend and had even shared some of her posts a couple times. I mostly trusted the recommendation because of how many mutuals we had (poor mistake I learned last year). However, upon seeing this post yesterday, I decided to delve further into [...] page and found multiple posts filled with ableism that I had either missed before or were older. I also received messages of first hand experiences from her former followers about her lack of accountability as well as her seemingly harmless yet genuinely harmful rhetoric." "This isn’t a tirade against holistic medicine. It’s a critique of fauxhemians who claim to possess “holistic” knowledge and in fact are causing harm or have the potential to cause great harm. Holistic medicine at its core is to treat the entire being. A lot of fauxhemians or fake “holistic” experts are proponents of these over simplified one type fits all blanket fixes to extremely complex diseases, disabilities, or disorders and that approach IS NOT a holistic approach. A holistic approach considers everything — so, reducing shit to one size fits all solutions (usually coupled with disregarding diagnoses) is in fact dangerous."

14.2. "The Rise of the Instagram Therapist," August 2019, Emily Reynolds [Vice] "The fact [...] describes her followers as "self healers", however, is somewhat telling. Her point, presumably, is that we all have the capacity to resolve some of our own anxieties and traumas, something most therapists or psychologists would not disagree with. And though some followers may be in therapy, others embarking on journeys of "self-healing" are likely to have no support at all – except, of course, for Instagram. But, as Mort says, Instagram is not therapy and never could be: it's not personalised, the same kind of relationship can't be established and, crucially, it's public. Whilst therapists might be aware of these limitations when they share their posts, it's harder to say whether their followers are too – something evidenced by the type of incredibly personal comments often left under posts."

14.2.1. "Hemorrhoid Wipes And Therapy Quotes: How Influencers Are Growing Their Online Brands," Tanya Chen, September 2019 [Buzzfeed] "A recent post, however, gave me pause. LaPera wrote that she decided to focus on Instagram last year after she “lost faith in [her] work” as a psychologist. She said that she had watched several of her patients become “stuck” in therapy, saying they “did not have the tools” to heal. She said she was able to foster and find “a group of people doing the work” and “encouraging each other” on Instagram. It became her mission to “give all [she] knew” to her online community. It’s worth noting that LaPera still offers individual sessions with clients on her website, and there is currently a waitlist. In addition to meeting with patients, she hosts events, meditations, guided online courses, and membership-only programs."

15. 14) Follower Criticism

15.1. Instagram comments [Imgur]

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15.3. YouTube Comment

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16. 15) Follower Count

16.1. 1st post as @the.holistic.psychologist, July 2018

16.1.1. 20,000 Followers, November 2018

16.2. 50,000 followers, Jan 2019

16.2.1. 1 Million, Oct 2019

16.2.1.1. Move to Los Angeles Febuary 2020

16.3. 2 Million Followers & Book Deal April 2020

17. 16) Psycho-Spiritual Bypass

17.1. "A Love Letter to Black, Indigenous & People of Colour: On Freeing Ourselves From Racist Priestesses, Fake Gurus & White Supremacist Spiritual Teachers," Layla Saad, March 2017 "The white spiritual teachers we have been primed and manipulated into idolising and wanting to become through guru branding, by and large do not care about black lives, indigenous lives, brown lives, trans lives, disabled lives, fat lives, actual diversity and inclusivity, actual social change and creating new paradigms of leadership, and even actual spirituality. Do not let their spiritual jargon of 'light work' and 'shadow work' fool you. Do not let their talk about smashing the patriarchy, becoming goddesses, priestessing the new paradigm, the rising of feminine leadership, and the importance of sisterhood, confuse you. BIPOC, they do not mean you when they are talking about these topics. They are not including you. [...] This whole industry is resting on the foundations of white supremacy, white feminism, anti-blackness, cultural appropriation, manipulative branding, and yes, racism. And unless you see the white spiritual teachers, priestesses, authors and leaders you follow actively and consistently doing the work of anti-racism both in their personal lives and in their businesses, then you can trust that racism is what is going to happen. Unless it is actively and consistently opposed, it is the default position."

17.2. "Beware of Spiritual Bypass," Ingrid Clayton Ph.D., Psychology Today, 2011 "There is a shadow side to almost every positive thing we can do for ourselves, including spiritual practice. All spiritual and psychological tools can be used in a "willful" way. For example, sometimes self-care is actually about taking care of ourselves: unplugging from too much work and plugging into more balance and harmony. But sometimes, under the guise of self-care, we are really just checking out: denying what's happening and how scary it feels to show up for life." "If you have found a way to transcend the human condition, my hat is off to you. Truly. But for the rest of you who continue to wrestle with emotional growing pains, I am spreading the news about spiritual bypass as a reminder that we are not supposed to rise above it all. We can't out-run our own feet. We can't out-think our own brains. We can't override this human operating system that we live and breath in every hour of every day, freeing ourselves of pain and problems. Not perpetually anyway. We need to remember that spiritual practice and emotional growth are not about achieving a particular quality of feeling ("good"). Being a human being on a spiritual journey isn't about getting cash and prizes all the time. It is about being in the present moment, whatever it happens to look like. What are you experiencing right now? And how about now? Can you be present to all of your feelings without any one of them defining you?"

17.3. "Spiritual Bypassing: What It Is, Why It’s Harmful, And What To Do About It," Annie Wright Psychotherapy, June 2017 "Psychological disintegration is, essentially, when we consciously or unconsciously disown or disavow certain aspects of ourselves – usually the parts of us that are the hardest and most painful to acknowledge and own. In doing so we become disintegrated, we become psychologically un-whole. Those disowned and disavowed aspects then comprise what Jungian psychotherapists would call The Shadow – the entirety of our unconscious that we are not fully aware of which “holds” the behaviors, memories, and ways of being we do not identify with and we judge as largely “negative.” And, as Carl Jung, M.D. would say, “Everyone carries a shadow…and the less it is embodied in the individual’s conscious life, the blacker and denser it is.” In other words, problematically, what we resist persists. What this may mean is that, when we spiritually bypass or disavow/disallow certain aspects within ourselves, we may also disavow and disallow it in others through the form of projection."

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