Sociological theories

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Sociological theories by Mind Map: Sociological theories

1. Consensus theory

1.1. Functionalism

1.1.1. Founded by: Talcott Parsons Robert Merton Emile Durkheim

1.1.2. Consensus and collective

1.1.3. Explain how society functions by focusing on relationship between social institution that make up society

1.1.4. Division of labour The range of tasks within a society system

1.1.5. Social order Role of shared norms & values in maintaining order

1.1.6. Organic analogy: a model of comparison of the parts of living organism

1.1.7. 4 functional prerequisites (Talcott Parsons) Goal Intergration Latency/Pattern Maintanence Adaptation

1.1.8. Anomie: State of normlessness

1.1.9. Stages of sociolisation Primary sociolisation Secondary sociolisation Adult sociolisation

1.1.10. Robert K. Merton's functions Manifest function Dysfunctional Latent function Non-function Alternate function

1.1.11. Criticisms unable to explain social change, emphasizes on value consensus, supports status quo, does not encourage radical change Too deterministic Supports ruling class (Marxists) Ignoring women (Feminists)

2. Social Action Theory/Interpretivism

2.1. Weberianism

2.1.1. Founded by Max Weber

2.1.2. Verstehen Meaning: To understand Aktulles Verstehen: Observational Erklarendes Verstehen: Explanatory

2.1.3. Casual explanation of capitalism Protestant Ethic Thesis (PET) Living an ascetic lifestyle Salvation anxiety

2.1.4. Social actions Rational Traditional Affective/Emotional Value-oriented

2.1.5. Authority Traditional Charismatic Rational-legal

2.1.6. Bureaucracy a structure of an organization with a set of values to control activities in large organization to ensure efficiency

2.1.7. Ideal Type Impersonality Specialized division of labour Efficiency Objectivity

2.1.8. More bureaucracy, freedom Iron cage Democracy decreases less freedom of choices

2.1.9. How is society constructed? Political party Economical Social

2.1.10. Criticism Methodological individualism Bureaucratic organizations are no longer dominant (Postmodernists)

3. Postmodern Vs. Modernism

3.1. Postmodernism

3.1.1. Jean Lyotard Language games The change of language Narrative Science & Metanarrative

3.1.2. Jean Baudrillard Simulation 4 stages Simulcra 3 orders

3.1.3. Lose faith in Science and Technology

3.1.4. Celebrates diversity

3.2. Modernism

3.2.1. Anthony Giddens Enlightment is not fully abandoned

3.2.2. Encourage rapid change Reflexivity Disembedding

3.2.3. 4 basic institution of modernism Capitalism Industrialism Administrative power Military power

4. Conflict theories

4.1. Marxism

4.1.1. Founded by: Karl Marx

4.1.2. 2 class system Rich (Ruling class) Poor (Working class)

4.1.3. Key sector Economic Base Superstructure

4.1.4. Superstructure supports capitalism through false class consciousness

4.1.5. Alienation

4.1.6. Exploitation and oppression capitalists suppressed the wages of the working class to gain profit paying the working class less that they deserved for the work done. less freedom over your time alienated from the product of your labor

4.1.7. Ideology: partial reality

4.1.8. Class consciousness vs. False class consciousness

4.1.9. Methods to determine society Objective method Subjective method Reputational method

4.1.10. Social change Occurs when the economics made of production changes and the social relations changes too

4.1.11. Contradiction within capitalism capitalist desire more profit which is in contradiction to the working class needs for better ways

4.1.12. Criticism Too economic deterministic No historical evidence

4.2. Feminism

4.2.1. To change the status of equality between women and men

4.2.2. Patriarchy Sylvia Walby (1990): patriarchy as central to an analysis of gender inequalities 6 structures of patriarchy paid work patriarchal relations within the household patriarchal culture sexuality male violence towards women the state Criticism: just a circular argument (Anna Pollert, 1996)

4.2.3. Gender Inequality

4.2.4. Types of feminists Liberal Radical Marxist Black Postmodern

4.2.5. Sex and gender

4.2.6. Human Capital Theory Due to women have less education & less work experiences End up in low pay, low status & low skills jobs

4.2.7. Liberal solution Reform of sex-biased laws Challenging sexist views & practice Access to opportunity & rights

5. Symbolic Interactionism

5.1. Founded by

5.1.1. G.H.Mead

5.2. Most important component of symbols

5.2.1. Meaning Human beings act based on meaning (Herbert Blumer) Come from negotiation with others No fixed meanings of action

5.3. Role taking

5.4. How is the self developed

5.4.1. Interacting with the society

5.5. Irving Goffman's Dramaturgy

5.5.1. Front stage

5.5.2. Back stage

5.6. I & Me

5.6.1. I: Opinion of yourself as a whole (Subjective)

5.6.2. Me: Definition of yourself in a specific role (Objective)

5.7. Play stage and Game stage

5.7.1. Play stage: Play a certain role in society

5.7.2. Game stage: Play a certain role with rules

5.8. Criticism

5.8.1. Interaction in a vacuum

5.8.2. Did not explain the origins of the norms

5.8.3. Did not explain the source of meanings

6. Structuralism

6.1. Founded by

6.1.1. Anthony Giddens

6.2. A social theory of the creation and reproduction of social systems that is based in the analysis of both structure & agents

6.3. Rules

6.3.1. Procedures that individuals may follow in their social life

6.4. Resources

6.4.1. Comes into being through human actions and can be changed or maintain by them Allocative resources: given by nature, becomes resources through human actions Authoritative resources: produced through human interaction

6.5. Social system

6.5.1. A pattern of social relations that exists over a period of time and space

6.6. Duality of structure

6.6.1. Structure

6.6.2. Agents

6.7. Ontological security

6.7.1. Humans have a basic desire for some degree of predictability in social life

6.8. Individual a creator and product

6.8.1. Deterministic: Product of social forces

6.8.2. Voluntarism: Freewill/Creator of social life

6.9. Human relationship constraint

6.9.1. By power relationship

6.9.2. By social forces

6.9.3. Physiology of the human potential

6.10. Criticisms

6.10.1. Natural disasters not included

6.10.2. Some structural factors are beyond control

6.10.3. Put too much emphasis on the ability of agents to transform society (Margeret S. Archer, 1982)

7. Ethnomethodology

7.1. Founded by

7.1.1. Harold Garfinkel

7.2. A method used by people to construct, account for and give meaning to their social world

7.3. Significant and Generalized others

7.3.1. Significant: People we interact usually (Family)

7.3.2. Generalised: People we don't ordinary interact (Peers)

7.4. Is there a real social order?

7.4.1. No real social order

7.4.2. Depends on the individual perceive society

7.4.3. A fiction

7.5. Social life appears seemed orderly?

7.5.1. Members actively engage in making sense in social life

7.6. Methods to make sense to the world

7.6.1. Documentary

7.6.2. Underlying patterns

7.7. Experiments carried out by Garfinkle

7.7.1. Counselling

7.7.2. Chicken

7.7.3. Lodger

7.8. Indexicality

7.8.1. The documentary of time & place

7.9. Mainstream sociologists failed to do:

7.9.1. See that individuals are actively and constantly constructed

7.9.2. Interpret the meaning & account for each activities & situation

7.9.3. People are not cultural dopes

7.10. Criticism

7.10.1. Too trial

7.10.2. Reveal things too commonsensical

7.10.3. Lack of motive